Total world population

Total world population DEFAULT

2021 World Population by Country

The current US Census Bureau world population estimate in June 2019 shows that the current global population is 7,577,130,400 people on earth, which far exceeds the world population of 7.2 billion from 2015. Our own estimate based on UN data shows the world's population surpassing 7.7 billion.

China is the most populous country in the world with a population exceeding 1.4 billion. It is one of just two countries with a population of more than 1 billion, with India being the second. As of 2018, India has a population of over 1.355 billion people, and its population growth is expected to continue through at least 2050. By the year 2030, the country of India is expected to become the most populous country in the world. This is because India’s population will grow, while China is projected to see a loss in population.

The next 11 countries that are the most populous in the world each have populations exceeding 100 million. These include the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Ethiopia, and the Philippines. Of these nations, all are expected to continue to grow except Russia and Japan, which will see their populations drop by 2030 before falling again significantly by 2050.

Many other nations have populations of at least one million, while there are also countries that have just thousands. The smallest population in the world can be found in Vatican City, where only 801 people reside.

In 2018, the world’s population growth rate was 1.12%. Every five years since the 1970s, the population growth rate has continued to fall. The world’s population is expected to continue to grow larger but at a much slower pace. By 2030, the population will exceed 8 billion. In 2040, this number will grow to more than 9 billion. In 2055, the number will rise to over 10 billion, and another billion people won’t be added until near the end of the century. The current annual population growth estimates from the United Nations are in the millions - estimating that over 80 million new lives are added each year.

This population growth will be significantly impacted by nine specific countries which are situated to contribute to the population growth more quickly than other nations. These nations include the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the United States of America. Particularly of interest, India is on track to overtake China's position as the most populous country by the year 2030. Additionally, multiple nations within Africa are expected to double their populations before fertility rates begin to slow entirely.

Global life expectancy has also improved in recent years, increasing the overall population life expectancy at birth to just over 70 years of age. The projected global life expectancy is only expected to continue to improve - reaching nearly 77 years of age by the year 2050. Significant factors impacting the data on life expectancy include the projections of the ability to reduce AIDS/HIV impact, as well as reducing the rates of infectious and non-communicable diseases.

Population aging has a massive impact on the ability of the population to maintain what is called a support ratio. One key finding from 2017 is that the majority of the world is going to face considerable growth in the 60 plus age bracket. This will put enormous strain on the younger age groups as the elderly population is becoming so vast without the number of births to maintain a healthy support ratio.

Although the number given above seems very precise, it is important to remember that it is just an estimate. It simply isn't possible to be sure exactly how many people there are on the earth at any one time, and there are conflicting estimates of the global population in 2016.

Some, including the UN, believe that a population of 7 billion was reached in October 2011. Others, including the US Census Bureau and World Bank, believe that the total population of the world reached 7 billion in 2012, around March or April.

Sours: https://worldpopulationreview.com/
World Population Dashboard

The World Population Dashboard showcases global population data, including fertility rate, gender parity in school enrolment, information on sexual and reproductive health, and much more. Together, these data shine a light on the health and rights of people around the world, especially women and young people. The numbers here come from UNFPA and fellow UN agencies, and are updated annually.

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Total population in millions, 2021

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Population aged 0-14, per cent, 2021

Population aged 10-19, percent, 2021

Population aged 10-24, per cent, 2021

Population aged 15-64, per cent, 2021

Population aged 65 and older, per cent, 2021

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Total net enrolment rate, primary education, percent, 2010-2020

Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education, percent, 2010-2019

Total net enrolment rate, upper secondary education, percent, 2009-2019

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Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, primary education, 2010-2020

Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education, 2010-2019

Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, upper secondary education, 2009-2019

A dispute exists between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Malvinas).
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Population

Population, by age group, per cent

  •  

    Population aged 0-14

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    Population aged 15-64

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    Population aged 65+

Maternal and newborn health

Births attended by skilled health personnel, per cent, 2014-2019

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    Births attended by skilled health personnel

Family Planning

Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need

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    CPR any method  

  •  

    Unmet need  

Education

Total net enrolment rate, percent

Fertility

Total fertility rate, per woman, 2021

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth (years), 2021


Harmful Practices

Download global data

Technical notes and sources

- Data not available.
aThe MMR has been rounded according to the following scheme: <100, rounded to nearest 1; 100-999, rounded to nearest 1; and >1000, rounded to nearest 10.
1On 29 November 2012, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 67/19, which accorded Palestine “non-member observer State status in the United Nations...”
aPercentage of girls aged 15-19 years who are members of the Sande society. Membership in Sande society is a proxy for female genital mutilation.
bFor ever-partnered women age 18+.
cFor ever-partnered women age 18-49.
dFor ever-partnered women age 15-64.
eFor ever-partnered women age 15-44.
fFor ever-partnered women age 18-50.
gFor ever-partnered women age 15+.
1For statistical purposes, the data for Netherlands do not include this area.
2Including Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands and Norfolk Island.
3Including Nagorno-Karabakh.
4For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China.
5As of 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China. For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include this area.
6Refers to the whole country.
7As of 20 December 1999, Macao became a Special Administrative Region SAR of China. For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include this area.
8For statistical purposes, the data for Denmark do not include Faroe Islands, and Greenland.
9Including Åland Islands.
10For statistical purposes, the data for France do not include French Guiana, French Polynesia, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Réunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin French part, Wallis and Futuna Islands.
11For statistical purposes, the data for France do not include this area.
12Including Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
13For statistical purposes, the data for United States of America do not include this area.
14Including Sabah and Sarawak.
15Including Agalega, Rodrigues and Saint Brandon.
16Including Transnistria.
17For statistical purposes, the data for Netherlands do not include Aruba, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part).
18For statistical purposes, the data for New Zealand do not include Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelau.
19Including Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands.
20Including East Jerusalem.
21Including Kosovo.
22Including Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla.
23Including Zanzibar.
24Refers to the territory of the country at the time of the 2001 census.
25Refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. For statistical purposes, the data for United Kingdom do not include Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Gibraltar, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Saint Helena, Turks and Caicos Islands.
26For statistical purposes, the data for United States of America do not include American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and United States Virgin Islands.

DEFINITIONS OF THE INDICATORS
Maternal mortality ratio: Number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100,000 live births during the same time period. (SDG indicator 3.1.1)
Births attended by skilled health personnel: Percentage of births attended by skilled heath personnel (doctor, nurse or midwife). (SDG indicator 3.1.2)
Number of new HIV infections, all ages, per 1,000 uninfected population: Number of new HIV infections per 1000 person-years among the uninfected population. (SDG indicator 3.3.1)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: Percentage of women aged 15 to 49 who are currently using any method of contraception.
Contraceptive prevalence rate, modern method: Percentage of women aged 15 to 49 who are currently using any modern method of contraception.
Unmet need for family planning: Percentage of women aged 15 to 49 who want to stop or delay childbearing but are not using a method of contraception.
Proportion of demand satisfied with modern methods: Percentage of total demand for family planning among women aged 15 to 49 that is satisfied by the use of modern contraception. (SDG indicator 3.7.1)
Laws and regulations that guarantee access to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education: The extent to which countries have national laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education. (SDG indicator 5.6.2)
Adolescent birth rate: Number of births per 1,000 adolescent girls aged 15–19. (SDG indicator 3.7.2)
Child marriage by age 18: Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18. (SDG indicator 5.3.1)
Female genital mutilation prevalence among girls aged 15-19: Proportion of girls aged 15-19 years who have undergone female genital mutilation. (SDG indicator 5.3.2)
Intimate partner violence, past 12 months: Percentage of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 to 49 who have experienced physical and/or sexual partner violence in the previous 12 months. (SDG indicator 5.2.1)
Decision making on sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights: Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who are married (or in union), who make their own decisions on three areas – their healthcare, use of contraception, and sexual intercourse with their partners. (SDG indicator 5.6.1). As this report went to press, updated data for this SDG indicator became available. The updated figures are available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/.
Total net enrolment rate, primary education: Total number of students of the official age group for primary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population.
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, primary education: Ratio of female to male values of total net enrolment rate for primary education.
Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education: Total number of students of the official age group for lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population.
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education: Ratio of female to male values of total net enrolment rate for lower secondary education.
Toal net enrolment rate, upper secondary education: Total number of students of the official age group for upper secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population.
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, upper secondary education: Ratio of female to male values of total net enrolment rate for upper secondary education.
Total population: Estimated size of national populations at mid-year.
Average annual rate of population change: Average exponential rate of growth of the population over a given period, based on a medium variant projection.
Population aged 0-14, percent: Proportion of the population between age 0 and age 14.
Population aged 10-19, percent: Proportion of the population between age 10 and age 19.
Population aged 10-24, percent: Proportion of the population between age 10 and age 24.
Population aged 15-64, percent: Proportion of the population between age 15 and age 64.
Population aged 65 and older, percent: Proportion of the population aged 65 and older.
Total fertility rate: Number of children who would be born per woman if she lived to the end of her childbearing years and bore children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
Life expectancy at birth: Number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross section of population at the time of their birth.

MAIN DATA SOURCES
Maternal mortality ratio: United Nations Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-agency Group (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank, and the United Nations Population Division).
Births attended by skilled health personnel: Joint global database on skilled attendance at birth, 2020, United Nations Children\'s Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organisation (WHO). Regional aggregates calculated by UNFPA based on data from the joint global database.
Number of new HIV infections, all ages, per 1,000 uninfected population: UNAIDS.
Contraceptive prevalence rate: United Nations Population Division.
Contraceptive prevalence rate, modern method: United Nations Population Division.
Unmet need for family planning: United Nations Population Division.
Proportion of demand satisfied with modern methods: United Nations Population Division.
Laws and regulations that guarantee access to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education: UNFPA.
Adolescent birth rate: United Nations Population Division.
Child marriage by age 18: UNICEF. Regional aggregates calculated by UNFPA based on data from UNICEF.
FGM prevalence among girls aged 15-19: UNFPA.
Intimate partner violence, past 12 months: UNFPA. Regional estimates generated by Violence Against Women Inter-Agency Group on Estimation and Data (WHO, UN Women, UNICEF, UNSD, UNODC, and UNFPA).
Decision making on sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights: UNFPA. As this report went to press, updated data for this SDG indicator became available. The updated figures are available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/.
Total net enrolment rate, primary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, primary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, lower secondary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Total net enrolment rate, upper secondary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Gender parity index, total net enrolment rate, upper secondary education: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).
Total population: United Nations Population Division.
Average annual rate of population change: United Nations Population Division.
Population aged 0-14, percent: UNFPA calculation based on data from United Nations Population Division.
Population aged 10-19, percent: UNFPA calculation based on data from United Nations Population Division.
Population aged 10-24, percent: UNFPA calculation based on data from United Nations Population Division.
Population aged 15-64, percent: UNFPA calculation based on data from United Nations Population Division.
Population aged 65 and older, percent: UNFPA calculation based on data from United Nations Population Division.
Total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division.
Life expectancy at birth: United Nations Population Division.

Sours: https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population-dashboard
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Countries in the world by population (2021)

This list includes both countries and dependent territories. Data based on the latest United Nations Population Division estimates.
Click on the name of the country or dependency for current estimates (live population clock), historical data, and projected figures.
See also: World Population

#Country (or dependency)Population
(2020)
Yearly
Change
Net
Change
Density
(P/Km²)
Land Area
(Km²)
Migrants
(net)
Fert.
Rate
Med.
Age
Urban
Pop %
World
Share
1China1,439,323,7760.39 %5,540,0901539,388,211-348,3991.73861 %18.47 %
2India1,380,004,3850.99 %13,586,6314642,973,190-532,6872.22835 %17.70 %
3United States331,002,6510.59 %1,937,734369,147,420954,8061.83883 %4.25 %
4Indonesia273,523,6151.07 %2,898,0471511,811,570-98,9552.33056 %3.51 %
5Pakistan220,892,3402.00 %4,327,022287770,880-233,3793.62335 %2.83 %
6Brazil212,559,4170.72 %1,509,890258,358,14021,2001.73388 %2.73 %
7Nigeria206,139,5892.58 %5,175,990226910,770-60,0005.41852 %2.64 %
8Bangladesh164,689,3831.01 %1,643,2221,265130,170-369,5012.12839 %2.11 %
9Russia145,934,4620.04 %62,206916,376,870182,4561.84074 %1.87 %
10Mexico128,932,7531.06 %1,357,224661,943,950-60,0002.12984 %1.65 %
11Japan126,476,461-0.30 %-383,840347364,55571,5601.44892 %1.62 %
12Ethiopia114,963,5882.57 %2,884,8581151,000,00030,0004.31921 %1.47 %
13Philippines109,581,0781.35 %1,464,463368298,170-67,1522.62647 %1.41 %
14Egypt102,334,4041.94 %1,946,331103995,450-38,0333.32543 %1.31 %
15Vietnam97,338,5790.91 %876,473314310,070-80,0002.13238 %1.25 %
16DR Congo89,561,4033.19 %2,770,836402,267,05023,8616.01746 %1.15 %
17Turkey84,339,0671.09 %909,452110769,630283,9222.13276 %1.08 %
18Iran83,992,9491.30 %1,079,043521,628,550-55,0002.23276 %1.08 %
19Germany83,783,9420.32 %266,897240348,560543,8221.64676 %1.07 %
20Thailand69,799,9780.25 %174,396137510,89019,4441.54051 %0.90 %
21United Kingdom67,886,0110.53 %355,839281241,930260,6501.84083 %0.87 %
22France65,273,5110.22 %143,783119547,55736,5271.94282 %0.84 %
23Italy60,461,826-0.15 %-88,249206294,140148,9431.34769 %0.78 %
24Tanzania59,734,2182.98 %1,728,75567885,800-40,0764.91837 %0.77 %
25South Africa59,308,6901.28 %750,420491,213,090145,4052.42867 %0.76 %
26Myanmar54,409,8000.67 %364,38083653,290-163,3132.22931 %0.70 %
27Kenya53,771,2962.28 %1,197,32394569,140-10,0003.52028 %0.69 %
28South Korea51,269,1850.09 %43,87752797,23011,7311.14482 %0.66 %
29Colombia50,882,8911.08 %543,448461,109,500204,7961.83180 %0.65 %
30Spain46,754,7780.04 %18,00294498,80040,0001.34580 %0.60 %
31Uganda45,741,0073.32 %1,471,413229199,810168,6945.01726 %0.59 %
32Argentina45,195,7740.93 %415,097172,736,6904,8002.33293 %0.58 %
33Algeria43,851,0441.85 %797,990182,381,740-10,0003.12973 %0.56 %
34Sudan43,849,2602.42 %1,036,022251,765,048-50,0004.42035 %0.56 %
35Ukraine43,733,762-0.59 %-259,87675579,32010,0001.44169 %0.56 %
36Iraq40,222,4932.32 %912,71093434,3207,8343.72173 %0.52 %
37Afghanistan38,928,3462.33 %886,59260652,860-62,9204.61825 %0.50 %
38Poland37,846,611-0.11 %-41,157124306,230-29,3951.44260 %0.49 %
39Canada37,742,1540.89 %331,10749,093,510242,0321.54181 %0.48 %
40Morocco36,910,5601.20 %438,79183446,300-51,4192.43064 %0.47 %
41Saudi Arabia34,813,8711.59 %545,343162,149,690134,9792.33284 %0.45 %
42Uzbekistan33,469,2031.48 %487,48779425,400-8,8632.42850 %0.43 %
43Peru32,971,8541.42 %461,401261,280,00099,0692.33179 %0.42 %
44Angola32,866,2723.27 %1,040,977261,246,7006,4135.61767 %0.42 %
45Malaysia32,365,9991.30 %416,22299328,55050,0002.03078 %0.42 %
46Mozambique31,255,4352.93 %889,39940786,380-5,0004.91838 %0.40 %
47Ghana31,072,9402.15 %655,084137227,540-10,0003.92257 %0.40 %
48Yemen29,825,9642.28 %664,04256527,970-30,0003.82038 %0.38 %
49Nepal29,136,8081.85 %528,098203143,35041,7101.92521 %0.37 %
50Venezuela28,435,940-0.28 %-79,88932882,050-653,2492.330N.A.0.36 %
51Madagascar27,691,0182.68 %721,71148581,795-1,5004.12039 %0.36 %
52Cameroon26,545,8632.59 %669,48356472,710-4,8004.61956 %0.34 %
53Côte d'Ivoire26,378,2742.57 %661,73083318,000-8,0004.71951 %0.34 %
54North Korea25,778,8160.44 %112,655214120,410-5,4031.93563 %0.33 %
55Australia25,499,8841.18 %296,68637,682,300158,2461.83886 %0.33 %
56Niger24,206,6443.84 %895,929191,266,7004,0007.01517 %0.31 %
57Taiwan23,816,7750.18 %42,89967335,41030,0011.24279 %0.31 %
58Sri Lanka21,413,2490.42 %89,51634162,710-97,9862.23418 %0.27 %
59Burkina Faso20,903,2732.86 %581,89576273,600-25,0005.21831 %0.27 %
60Mali20,250,8333.02 %592,802171,220,190-40,0005.91644 %0.26 %
61Romania19,237,691-0.66 %-126,86684230,170-73,9991.64355 %0.25 %
62Malawi19,129,9522.69 %501,20520394,280-16,0534.31818 %0.25 %
63Chile19,116,2010.87 %164,16326743,532111,7081.73585 %0.25 %
64Kazakhstan18,776,7071.21 %225,28072,699,700-18,0002.83158 %0.24 %
65Zambia18,383,9552.93 %522,92525743,390-8,0004.71845 %0.24 %
66Guatemala17,915,5681.90 %334,096167107,160-9,2152.92352 %0.23 %
67Ecuador17,643,0541.55 %269,39271248,36036,4002.42863 %0.23 %
68Syria17,500,6582.52 %430,52395183,630-427,3912.82660 %0.22 %
69Netherlands17,134,8720.22 %37,74250833,72016,0001.74392 %0.22 %
70Senegal16,743,9272.75 %447,56387192,530-20,0004.71949 %0.21 %
71Cambodia16,718,9651.41 %232,42395176,520-30,0002.52624 %0.21 %
72Chad16,425,8643.00 %478,988131,259,2002,0005.81723 %0.21 %
73Somalia15,893,2222.92 %450,31725627,340-40,0006.11747 %0.20 %
74Zimbabwe14,862,9241.48 %217,45638386,850-116,8583.61938 %0.19 %
75Guinea13,132,7952.83 %361,54953245,720-4,0004.71839 %0.17 %
76Rwanda12,952,2182.58 %325,26852524,670-9,0004.12018 %0.17 %
77Benin12,123,2002.73 %322,049108112,760-2,0004.91948 %0.16 %
78Burundi11,890,7843.12 %360,20446325,6802,0015.51714 %0.15 %
79Tunisia11,818,6191.06 %123,90076155,360-4,0002.23370 %0.15 %
80Bolivia11,673,0211.39 %159,921111,083,300-9,5042.82669 %0.15 %
81Belgium11,589,6230.44 %50,29538330,28048,0001.74298 %0.15 %
82Haiti11,402,5281.24 %139,45141427,560-35,0003.02457 %0.15 %
83Cuba11,326,616-0.06 %-6,867106106,440-14,4001.64278 %0.15 %
84South Sudan11,193,7251.19 %131,61218610,952-174,2004.71925 %0.14 %
85Dominican Republic10,847,9101.01 %108,95222548,320-30,0002.42885 %0.14 %
86Czech Republic (Czechia)10,708,9810.18 %19,77213977,24022,0111.64374 %0.14 %
87Greece10,423,054-0.48 %-50,40181128,900-16,0001.34685 %0.13 %
88Jordan10,203,1341.00 %101,44011588,78010,2202.82491 %0.13 %
89Portugal10,196,709-0.29 %-29,47811191,590-6,0001.34666 %0.13 %
90Azerbaijan10,139,1770.91 %91,45912382,6581,2002.13256 %0.13 %
91Sweden10,099,2650.63 %62,88625410,34040,0001.94188 %0.13 %
92Honduras9,904,6071.63 %158,49089111,890-6,8002.52457 %0.13 %
93United Arab Emirates9,890,4021.23 %119,87311883,60040,0001.43386 %0.13 %
94Hungary9,660,351-0.25 %-24,32810790,5306,0001.54372 %0.12 %
95Tajikistan9,537,6452.32 %216,62768139,960-20,0003.62227 %0.12 %
96Belarus9,449,323-0.03 %-3,08847202,9108,7301.74079 %0.12 %
97Austria9,006,3980.57 %51,29610982,40965,0001.54357 %0.12 %
98Papua New Guinea8,947,0241.95 %170,91520452,860-8003.62213 %0.11 %
99Serbia8,737,371-0.40 %-34,86410087,4604,0001.54256 %0.11 %
100Israel8,655,5351.60 %136,15840021,64010,0003.03093 %0.11 %
101Switzerland8,654,6220.74 %63,25721939,51652,0001.54374 %0.11 %
102Togo8,278,7242.43 %196,35815254,390-2,0004.41943 %0.11 %
103Sierra Leone7,976,9832.10 %163,76811172,180-4,2004.31943 %0.10 %
104Hong Kong7,496,9810.82 %60,8277,1401,05029,3081.345N.A.0.10 %
105Laos7,275,5601.48 %106,10532230,800-14,7042.72436 %0.09 %
106Paraguay7,132,5381.25 %87,90218397,300-16,5562.42662 %0.09 %
107Bulgaria6,948,445-0.74 %-51,67464108,560-4,8001.64576 %0.09 %
108Libya6,871,2921.38 %93,84041,759,540-1,9992.32978 %0.09 %
109Lebanon6,825,445-0.44 %-30,26866710,230-30,0122.13078 %0.09 %
110Nicaragua6,624,5541.21 %79,05255120,340-21,2722.42657 %0.08 %
111Kyrgyzstan6,524,1951.69 %108,34534191,800-4,0003.02636 %0.08 %
112El Salvador6,486,2050.51 %32,65231320,720-40,5392.12873 %0.08 %
113Turkmenistan6,031,2001.50 %89,11113469,930-5,0002.82753 %0.08 %
114Singapore5,850,3420.79 %46,0058,35870027,0281.242N.A.0.08 %
115Denmark5,792,2020.35 %20,32613742,43015,2001.84288 %0.07 %
116Finland5,540,7200.15 %8,56418303,89014,0001.54386 %0.07 %
117Congo5,518,0872.56 %137,57916341,500-4,0004.51970 %0.07 %
118Slovakia5,459,6420.05 %2,62911448,0881,4851.54154 %0.07 %
119Norway5,421,2410.79 %42,38415365,26828,0001.74083 %0.07 %
120Oman5,106,6262.65 %131,64016309,50087,4002.93187 %0.07 %
121State of Palestine5,101,4142.41 %119,9948476,020-10,5633.72180 %0.07 %
122Costa Rica5,094,1180.92 %46,55710051,0604,2001.83380 %0.07 %
123Liberia5,057,6812.44 %120,3075396,320-5,0004.41953 %0.06 %
124Ireland4,937,7861.13 %55,2917268,89023,6041.83863 %0.06 %
125Central African Republic4,829,7671.78 %84,5828622,980-40,0004.81843 %0.06 %
126New Zealand4,822,2330.82 %39,17018263,31014,8811.93887 %0.06 %
127Mauritania4,649,6582.74 %123,96251,030,7005,0004.62057 %0.06 %
128Panama4,314,7671.61 %68,3285874,34011,2002.53068 %0.06 %
129Kuwait4,270,5711.51 %63,48824017,82039,5202.137N.A.0.05 %
130Croatia4,105,267-0.61 %-25,0377355,960-8,0011.44458 %0.05 %
131Moldova4,033,963-0.23 %-9,30012332,850-1,3871.33843 %0.05 %
132Georgia3,989,167-0.19 %-7,5985769,490-10,0002.13858 %0.05 %
133Eritrea3,546,4211.41 %49,30435101,000-39,8584.11963 %0.05 %
134Uruguay3,473,7300.35 %11,99620175,020-3,0002.03696 %0.04 %
135Bosnia and Herzegovina3,280,819-0.61 %-20,1816451,000-21,5851.34352 %0.04 %
136Mongolia3,278,2901.65 %53,12321,553,560-8522.92867 %0.04 %
137Armenia2,963,2430.19 %5,51210428,470-4,9981.83563 %0.04 %
138Jamaica2,961,1670.44 %12,88827310,830-11,3322.03155 %0.04 %
139Qatar2,881,0531.73 %48,98624811,61040,0001.93296 %0.04 %
140Albania2,877,797-0.11 %-3,12010527,400-14,0001.63663 %0.04 %
141Puerto Rico2,860,853-2.47 %-72,5553238,870-97,9861.244N.A.0.04 %
142Lithuania2,722,289-1.35 %-37,3384362,674-32,7801.74571 %0.03 %
143Namibia2,540,9051.86 %46,3753823,290-4,8063.42255 %0.03 %
144Gambia2,416,6682.94 %68,96223910,120-3,0875.31859 %0.03 %
145Botswana2,351,6272.08 %47,9304566,7303,0002.92473 %0.03 %
146Gabon2,225,7342.45 %53,1559257,6703,2604.02387 %0.03 %
147Lesotho2,142,2490.80 %16,9817130,360-10,0473.22431 %0.03 %
148North Macedonia2,083,3740.00 %-858325,220-1,0001.53959 %0.03 %
149Slovenia2,078,9380.01 %28410320,1402,0001.64555 %0.03 %
150Guinea-Bissau1,968,0012.45 %47,0797028,120-1,3994.51945 %0.03 %
151Latvia1,886,198-1.08 %-20,5453062,200-14,8371.74469 %0.02 %
152Bahrain1,701,5753.68 %60,4032,23976047,8002.03289 %0.02 %
153Equatorial Guinea1,402,9853.47 %46,9995028,05016,0004.62273 %0.02 %
154Trinidad and Tobago1,399,4880.32 %4,5152735,130-8001.73652 %0.02 %
155Estonia1,326,5350.07 %8873142,3903,9111.64268 %0.02 %
156Timor-Leste1,318,4451.96 %25,3268914,870-5,3854.12133 %0.02 %
157Mauritius1,271,7680.17 %2,1006262,03001.43741 %0.02 %
158Cyprus1,207,3590.73 %8,7841319,2405,0001.33767 %0.02 %
159Eswatini1,160,1641.05 %12,0346717,200-8,3533.02130 %0.01 %
160Djibouti988,0001.48 %14,4404323,1809002.82779 %0.01 %
161Fiji896,4450.73 %6,4924918,270-6,2022.82859 %0.01 %
162Réunion895,3120.72 %6,3853582,500-1,2562.336100 %0.01 %
163Comoros869,6012.20 %18,7154671,861-2,0004.22029 %0.01 %
164Guyana786,5520.48 %3,7864196,850-6,0002.52727 %0.01 %
165Bhutan771,6081.12 %8,5162038,1173202.02846 %0.01 %
166Solomon Islands686,8842.55 %17,0612527,990-1,6004.42023 %0.01 %
167Macao649,3351.39 %8,89021,645305,0001.239N.A.0.01 %
168Montenegro628,0660.01 %794713,450-4801.83968 %0.01 %
169Luxembourg625,9781.66 %10,2492422,5909,7411.54088 %0.01 %
170Western Sahara597,3392.55 %14,8762266,0005,5822.42887 %0.01 %
171Suriname586,6320.90 %5,2604156,000-1,0002.42965 %0.01 %
172Cabo Verde555,9871.10 %6,0521384,030-1,3422.32868 %0.01 %
173Micronesia548,9141.00 %5,428784700-2,9572.92768 %0.01 %
174Maldives540,5441.81 %9,5911,80230011,3701.93035 %0.01 %
175Malta441,5430.27 %1,1711,3803209001.54393 %0.01 %
176Brunei 437,4790.97 %4,194835,27001.83280 %0.01 %
177Guadeloupe400,1240.02 %682371,690-1,4402.244N.A.0.01 %
178Belize397,6281.86 %7,2751722,8101,2002.32546 %0.01 %
179Bahamas393,2440.97 %3,7623910,0101,0001.83286 %0.01 %
180Martinique375,265-0.08 %-2893541,060-9601.94792 %0.00 %
181Iceland341,2430.65 %2,2123100,2503801.83794 %0.00 %
182Vanuatu307,1452.42 %7,2632512,1901203.82124 %0.00 %
183French Guiana298,6822.70 %7,850482,2001,2003.42587 %0.00 %
184Barbados287,3750.12 %350668430-791.64031 %0.00 %
185New Caledonia285,4980.97 %2,7481618,2805022.03472 %0.00 %
186French Polynesia280,9080.58 %1,621773,660-1,0002.03464 %0.00 %
187Mayotte272,8152.50 %6,66572837503.72046 %0.00 %
188Sao Tome & Principe219,1591.91 %4,103228960-1,6804.41974 %0.00 %
189Samoa198,4140.67 %1,317702,830-2,8033.92218 %0.00 %
190Saint Lucia183,6270.46 %83730161001.43419 %0.00 %
191Channel Islands173,8630.93 %1,6049151901,3511.54330 %0.00 %
192Guam168,7750.89 %1,481313540-5062.33195 %0.00 %
193Curaçao164,0930.41 %6693704445151.84289 %0.00 %
194Kiribati119,4491.57 %1,843147810-8003.62357 %0.00 %
195Grenada112,5230.46 %520331340-2002.13235 %0.00 %
196St. Vincent & Grenadines110,9400.32 %351284390-2001.93353 %0.00 %
197Aruba106,7660.43 %4525931802011.94144 %0.00 %
198Tonga105,6951.15 %1,201147720-8003.62224 %0.00 %
199U.S. Virgin Islands104,425-0.15 %-153298350-4512.04396 %0.00 %
200Seychelles98,3470.62 %608214460-2002.53456 %0.00 %
201Antigua and Barbuda97,9290.84 %81122344002.03426 %0.00 %
202Isle of Man85,0330.53 %449149570N.A.N.A.53 %0.00 %
203Andorra77,2650.16 %123164470N.A.N.A.88 %0.00 %
204Dominica71,9860.25 %17896750N.A.N.A.74 %0.00 %
205Cayman Islands65,7221.19 %774274240N.A.N.A.97 %0.00 %
206Bermuda62,278-0.36 %-2281,24650N.A.N.A.97 %0.00 %
207Marshall Islands59,1900.68 %399329180N.A.N.A.70 %0.00 %
208Northern Mariana Islands57,5590.60 %343125460N.A.N.A.88 %0.00 %
209Greenland56,7700.17 %980410,450N.A.N.A.87 %0.00 %
210American Samoa55,191-0.22 %-121276200N.A.N.A.88 %0.00 %
211Saint Kitts & Nevis53,1990.71 %376205260N.A.N.A.33 %0.00 %
212Faeroe Islands48,8630.38 %185351,396N.A.N.A.43 %0.00 %
213Sint Maarten42,8761.15 %4881,26134N.A.N.A.96 %0.00 %
214Monaco39,2420.71 %27826,3371N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %
215Turks and Caicos38,7171.38 %52641950N.A.N.A.89 %0.00 %
216Saint Martin38,6661.75 %66473053N.A.N.A.0 %0.00 %
217Liechtenstein38,1280.29 %109238160N.A.N.A.15 %0.00 %
218San Marino33,9310.21 %7156660N.A.N.A.97 %0.00 %
219Gibraltar33,691-0.03 %-103,36910N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %
220British Virgin Islands30,2310.67 %201202150N.A.N.A.52 %0.00 %
221Caribbean Netherlands26,2230.94 %24480328N.A.N.A.75 %0.00 %
222Palau18,0940.48 %8639460N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %
223Cook Islands17,5640.09 %1673240N.A.N.A.75 %0.00 %
224Anguilla15,0030.90 %13416790N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %
225Tuvalu11,7921.25 %14639330N.A.N.A.62 %0.00 %
226Wallis & Futuna11,239-1.69 %-19380140N.A.N.A.0 %0.00 %
227Nauru10,8240.63 %6854120N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %
228Saint Barthelemy9,8770.30 %3047021N.A.N.A.0 %0.00 %
229Saint Helena6,0770.30 %1816390N.A.N.A.27 %0.00 %
230Saint Pierre & Miquelon5,794-0.48 %-2825230N.A.N.A.100 %0.00 %
231Montserrat4,9920.06 %350100N.A.N.A.10 %0.00 %
232Falkland Islands3,4803.05 %103012,170N.A.N.A.66 %0.00 %
233Niue1,6260.68 %116260N.A.N.A.46 %0.00 %
234Tokelau1,3571.27 %1713610N.A.N.A.0 %0.00 %
235Holy See8010.25 %22,0030N.A.N.A.N.A.0.00 %

Sours: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/
Top 20 Country Population History \u0026 Projection (1810-2100)

World Population Growth

When and why did the world population grow? And how does rapid population growth come to an end? These are the big questions that are central to this research article.

The world population increased from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.7 billion today.

The world population growth rate declined from 2.2% per year 50 years ago to 1.05% per year.

Other relevant research:

Future population growth – This article focuses on the future of population growth. We explain how we know that population growth is coming to an end, and present projections of the drivers of population growth.

Life expectancy – Improving health leads to falling mortality and is therefore the factor that increases the size of the population. Life expectancy, which measures the age of death, has doubled in every region in the world as we show here.

Child & infant mortality – Mortality at a young age has a particularly big impact on demographic change.

Fertility rates – Rapid population growth has been a temporary phenomenon in many countries. It comes to an end when the average number of births per woman – the fertility rate – declines. In the article we show the data and explain why fertility rates declined.

Age Structure – What is the age profile of populations around the world? How did it change and what will the age structure of populations look like in the future?

All our charts on World Population Growth

Population of the world today

How is the global population distributed across the world?

One way to understand the distribution of people across the world is to reform the world map, not based on area but according to population.

This is shown here in a population cartogram: a geographical presentation of the world where the size of the countries are not drawn according to the distribution of land, but according to the distribution of people. The cartogram shows where in the world the global population was at home in 2018.

The cartogram is made up of squares, each of which represents half a million people of a country’s population. The 11.5 million Belgians are represented by 23 squares; the 49.5 million Colombians are represented by 99 squares; the 1.415 billion people in China are represented by 2830 squares; and the entire world population of 7.633 billion people in 2018 is represented by the total sum of 15,266 squares.

As the size of the population rather than the size of the territory is shown in this map you can see some big differences when you compare it to the standard geographical map we’re most familiar with. Small countries with a high population density increase in size in this cartogram relative to the world maps we are used to – look at Bangladesh, Taiwan, or the Netherlands. Large countries with a small population shrink in size (look for Canada, Mongolia, Australia, or Russia).

You can find more details on this cartogram in our explainer: ‘The map we need if we want to think about how global living conditions are changing‘.

[click on the cartogram to enlarge it. And here you can download the population cartogram in high resolution (6985×2650).]

Population cartogram world 1

Which countries are most densely populated?

Our understanding of the world is often shaped by geographical maps. But this tells us nothing about where in the world people live. To understand this, we need to look at population density.

In the map we see the number of people per square kilometer (km2) across the world.

Globally the average population density is 25 people per km2, but there are very large differences across countries.

  • Many of the world’s small island or isolated states have large populations for their size. Macao, Monaco, Singapore, Hong Kong and Gibraltar are the five most densely populated. Singapore has nearly 8,000 people per km2 – more than 200 times as dense as the US, and 2000 times that of Australia.
  • Of the larger countries1, Bangladesh is the most densely-populated with 1,252 people per square kilometer; this is almost three times as dense as its neighbour, India. It’s followed by Lebanon (595), South Korea (528), the Netherlands (508) and Rwanda (495 per km2) completing the top five.
  • If you hover the mouse on the bracket from 0 to 10 on the legend then you see the world’s least densely populated countries. Greenland is the least dense, with less than 0.2 people per square km2, followed by Mongolia, Namibia, Australia and Iceland. In our population cartogram these are the countries that take up much less space than on a standard geographical map.

If we want to understand how people are distributed across the world, another useful tool is the population cartogram: a geographical presentation of the world where the size of the countries are not drawn according to the distribution of land, but according to the distribution of people.

Here we show how the world looks in this way. When we see a standard map we tend to focus on the largest countries by area. But these are not always where the greatest number of people live. It’s this context we need if we want to understand how the lives of people around the world are changing.

How has world population growth changed over time?

World population from 10,000 BC to today

The chart shows the increasing number of people living on our planet over the last 12,000 years. A mind-boggling change: The world population today that is 1,860-times the size of what it was 12 millennia ago when the world population was around 4 million – half of the current population of London.

What is striking about this chart is of course that almost all of this growth happened just very recently. Historical demographers estimate that around the year 1800 the world population was only around 1 billion people. This implies that on average the population grew very slowly over this long time from 10,000 BCE to 1700 (by 0.04% annually). After 1800 this changed fundamentally: The world population was around 1 billion in the year 1800 and increased 7-fold since then.

Around 108 billion people have ever lived on our planet. This means that today’s population size makes up 6.5% of the total number of people ever born.2

For the long period from the appearance of modern Homo sapiens up to the starting point of this chart in 10,000 BCE it is estimated that the total world population was often well under one million.3

In this period our species was often seriously threatened by extinction.4

The interactive visualization is here. And you can also download the annual world population data produced by Our World in Data.

A number of researchers have published estimates for the total world population over the long run, we have brought these estimates together and you can explore these various sources here.

Annual world population since 10 thousand bce for owid

How has the world population growth rate changed?

In terms of recent developments, the data from the UN Population Division provides consistent and comparable estimates (and projections) within and across countries and time, over the last century. This data starts from estimates for 1950, and is updated periodically to reflect changes in fertility, mortality and international migration.

In the section above we looked at the absolute change in the global population over time. But what about the rate of population growth?

The global population growth rate peaked long ago. The chart shows that global population growth reached a peak in 1962 and 1963 with an annual growth rate of 2.2%; but since then, world population growth has halved.

For the last half-century we have lived in a world in which the population growth rate has been declining. The UN projects that this decline will continue in the coming decades.

A common question we’re asked is: is the global population growing exponentially? The answer is no. For population growth to be exponential, the growth rate would have be the same over time (e.g. 2% growth every year). In absolute terms, this would result in an exponential increase in the number of people. That’s because we’d be multiplying an ever-larger number of people by the same 2%. 2% of the population this year would be larger than 2% last year, and so on; this means the population would grow exponentially.

But, as we see in this chart, since the 1960s the growth rate has been falling. This means the world population is not growing exponentially – for decades now, growth has been more similar to a linear trend.

Updated world population growth rate annual 1950 2100

The absolute annual change of the population

The previous section looked at the growth rate. This visualization here shows the annual global population increase from 1950 to today and the projection until the end of this century.

The absolute increase of the population per year has peaked in the late 1980s at over 90 million additional people each year. But it stayed high until recently. From now on the UN expects the annual increase to decline by around 1 million every year.

Population growth over the long run

There are other ways of visually representing the change in rate of world population growth. Two examples of this are shown in the charts below.

How long did it take for the world population to double?

The visualization shows how strongly the growth rate of the world population changed over time. In the past the population grew slowly: it took nearly seven centuries for the population to double from 0.25 billion (in the early 9th century) to 0.5 billion in the middle of the 16th century. As the growth rate slowly climbed, the population doubling time fell but remained in the order of centuries into the first half of the 20th century. Things sped up considerably in the middle of the 20th century.

The fastest doubling of the world population happened between 1950 and 1987: a doubling from 2.5 to 5 billion people in just 37 years — the population doubled within a little more than one generation. This period was marked by a peak population growth of 2.1% in 1962.

Since then, population growth has been slowing, and along with it the doubling time. In this visualisation we have used the UN projections to show how the doubling time is projected to change until the end of this century. By 2100, it will once again have taken approximately 100 years for the population to double to a predicted 10.8 billion.

World population doubling time 1

How long did it take for the world population to increase by one billion?

This visualization provides an additional perspective on population growth: the number of years it took to add one billion to the global population. Also shown in this figure is the number of years projected up to 11 billion based on the UN’s ‘medium variant’ projection.

This visualisation shows again how the population growth rate has changed dramatically through time. It wasn’t until 1803 that the world reached its first billion; it then took another 124 years to reach two billion. By the third billion, this period had reduced to 33 years, reduced further to 15 years to reach four. The period of fastest growth occurred through 1975 to 2011, taking only 12 years to increase by one billion for the 5th, 6th and 7th.

The world has now surpassed this peak rate of growth, and the period between each billion is expected to continue to rise. It’s estimated to take approximately 13 years to reach eight billion in 2024; a further 14 years to reach 9 billion in 2038; 18 years to reach 10 billion in 2056; and a further 32 years to reach the 11th billion in 2088.

Time taken to increase population by one billion

Population growth by world region

Two hundred years ago the world population was just over one billion. Since then the number of people on the planet grew more than 7-fold to 7.7 billion in 2019. How is the world population distributed across regions and how did it change over this period of rapid global growth?

In this visualization we see historical population estimates by region from 1820 through to today. These estimates are published by the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) and the United Nations Population Division from 1950 onwards.

Most people always lived in Asia: Today it is 60% two hundred years ago it was 68%. If you want to see the relative distribution across the world regions in more detail you can switch to the relative view.

The world region that saw the fastest population growth over last two centuries was North America. The population grew 31-fold. Latin America saw the second largest increase (28-fold). Over the same period the population Europe of increased 3-fold, in Africa 14-fold, and in Asia 6-fold.

The distribution of the world population is expected to change significantly over the 21st century. We discuss projections of population by region here.

Population growth by country

What are the most populous countries in the world?

Over the last century, the world has seen rapid population growth. But how are populations distributed across the world? Which countries have the most people?

In the map, we see the estimated population of each country today. To see how this has changed since 10,000 BCE, you can use the ‘play’ button and timeline in the bottom-left of the chart. By clicking on any country, you can also see how its population has evolved over this period.

Here we see that the top five most populous countries are:

(1) China (1.44 billion)

(2) India (1.39 billion)

(3) United States (333 million)

(4) Indonesia (276 million)

(5) Brazil (214 million)

For several centuries, China has been the world’s most populous country. But not for long: it’s expected that India will overtake China within the next decade. You can learn more about future population growth by country here.

The distribution of the world population over the last 5000 years

This series of maps shows the distribution of the world population over time. The first map – in the top-left corner – shows the world population in 3000 BC.

Population centers have stayed remarkably stable over this long period.

Global population distribution over 5000 years

Population growth rate by country and region

Global population growth peaked in the early 1960s. But how has population growth varied across the world?

There are two metrics we can use to look at population growth rates:

(1) ‘Natural population growth’: this is the change in population as determined by births and deaths only. Migration flows are not counted.

(2) Population growth rate: this is the change in population as determined by births, deaths plus migration flows.

Both of these measures of population growth across the world are shown in the two charts. You can use the slider underneath each map to look at this change since 1950. Clicking on any country will show a line chart of its change over time, with UN projections through to 2099.

We see that there are some countries today where the natural population growth (not including migration) is slightly negative: the number of deaths exceed the number of births. When we move the time slider underneath the map to past years, we see that this is a new phenomenon. Up until the 1970s, there were no countries with a negative natural population growth.

Worldwide, population growth is slowing—you can press the play arrow at the bottom of the chart to see the change over time.

Overall, growth rates in most countries have been going down since the 1960s. Yet substantial differences exist across countries and regions.

Whilst Western Europe’s growth rates are currently close to zero, sub-Saharan Africa’s rates remain higher than 3% — that is, still higher than the peak growth rates recorded for the world at the beginning of the 1960s. Moreover, in many cases there has been divergence in growth rates. For instance, while India and Nigeria had similar growth rates in 1960 (around 2%), they took very different paths in the following years and thus currently have populations that grow at very different rates (about 0.98% for India compared to 2.53% for Nigeria).

Two centuries of rapid global population growth will come to an end

One of the big lessons from the demographic history of countries is that population explosions are temporary. For many countries the demographic transition has already ended, and as the global fertility rate has now halved we know that the world as a whole is approaching the end of rapid population growth.

This visualization presents this big overview of the global demographic transition – with the very latest data from the UN Population Division.

As we explore at the beginning of the entry on population growth, the global population grew only very slowly up to 1700 – only 0.04% per year. In the many millennia up to that point in history very high mortality of children counteracted high fertility. The world was in the first stage of the demographic transition.

Once health improved and mortality declined things changed quickly. Particularly over the course of the 20th century: Over the last 100 years global population more than quadrupled. As we see in the chart, the rise of the global population got steeper and steeper and you have just lived through the steepest increase of that curve. This also means that your existence is a tiny part of the reason why that curve is so steep.

The 7-fold increase of the world population over the course of two centuries amplified humanity’s impact on the natural environment. To provide space, food, and resources for a large world population in a way that is sustainable into the distant future is without question one of the large, serious challenges for our generation. We should not make the mistake of underestimating the task ahead of us. Yes, I expect new generations to contribute, but for now it is upon us to provide for them. Population growth is still fast: Every year 140 million are born and 58 million die – the difference is the number of people that we add to the world population in a year: 82 million.

Where do we go from here?

In red you see the annual population growth rate (that is, the percentage change in population per year) of the global population. It peaked around half a century ago. Peak population growth was reached in 1968 with an annual growth of 2.1%. Since then the increase of the world population has slowed and today grows by just over 1% per year. This slowdown of population growth was not only predictable, but predicted. Just as expected by demographers (here), the world as a whole is experiencing the closing of a massive demographic transition.

This chart also shows how the United Nations envision the slow ending of the global demographic transition. As population growth continues to decline, the curve representing the world population is getting less and less steep. By the end of the century – when global population growth will have fallen to 0.1% according to the UN’s projection – the world will be very close to the end of the demographic transition. It is hard to know the population dynamics beyond 2100; it will depend upon the fertility rate and as we discuss in our entry on fertility rates here fertility is first falling with development – and then rising with development. The question will be whether it will rise above an average 2 children per woman.

The world enters the last phase of the demographic transition and this means we will not repeat the past. The global population has quadrupled over the course of the 20th century, but it will not double anymore over the course of this century.

The world population will reach a size, which compared to humanity’s history, will be extraordinary; if the UN projections are accurate (they have a good track record), the world population will have increased more than 10-fold over the span of 250 years.

We are on the way to a new balance. The big global demographic transition that the world entered more than two centuries ago is then coming to an end: This new equilibrium is different from the one in the past when it was the very high mortality that kept population growth in check. In the new balance it will be low fertility keeps population changes small.

2019 revision – world population growth 1700 2100

The past future of the global age structure

In 1950 there were 2.5 billion people on the planet. Now in 2019, there are 7.7 billion. By the end of the century the UN expects a global population of 11.2 billion. This visualization of the population pyramid makes it possible to understand this enormous global transformation.

Population pyramids visualize the demographic structure of a population. The width represents the size of the population of a given age; women on the right and men to the left. The bottom layer represents the number of newborns and above it you find the numbers of older cohorts. Represented in this way the population structure of societies with high mortality rates resembled a pyramid – this is how this famous type of visualization got its name.

In the darkest blue you see the pyramid that represents the structure of the world population in 1950. Two factors are responsible for the pyramid shape in 1950: An increasing number of births broadened the base layer of the population pyramid and a continuously high risk of death throughout life is evident by the pyramid narrowing towards the top. There were many newborns relative to the number of people at older ages.

The narrowing of the pyramid just above the base is testimony to the fact that more than 1-in-5 children born in 1950 died before they reached the age of five.5

Through shades of blue and green the same visualization shows the population structure over the last decades up to 2018. You see that in each subsequent decade the population pyramid was fatter than before – in each decade more people of all ages were added to the world population.

If you look at the green pyramid for 2018 you see that the narrowing above the base is much less strong than back in 1950; the child mortality rate fell from 1-in-5 in 1950 to fewer than 1-in-20 today.

In comparing 1950 and 2018 we see that the number of children born has increased – 97 million in 1950 to 143 million today – and that the mortality of children decreased at the same time. If you now compare the base of the pyramid in 2018 with the projection for 2100 you see that the coming decades will not resemble the past: According to the projections there will be fewer children born at the end of this century than today. The base of the future population structure is narrower.

We are at a turning point in global population history. Between 1950 and today, it was a widening of the entire pyramid – an increase of the number of children – that was responsible for the increase of the world population. From now on is not a widening of the base, but a ‘fill up’ of the population above the base: the number of children will barely increase and then start to decline, but the number of people of working age and old age will increase very substantially. As global health is improving and mortality is falling, the people alive today are expected to live longer than any generation before us.

At a country level “peak child” is often followed by a time in which the country benefits from a “demographic dividend” when the proportion of the dependent young generation falls and the share of the population in working age increases.7

This is now happening at a global scale. For every child younger than 15 there were 1.8 people in working-age (15 to 64) in 1950; today there are 2.5; and by the end of the century there will be 3.4.8

Richer countries have benefited from this transition in the last decades and are now facing the demographic problem of an increasingly larger share of retired people that are not contributing to the labor market. In the coming decades it will be the poorer countries that can benefit from this demographic dividend.

The change from 1950 to today and the projections to 2100 show a world population that is becoming healthier. When the top of the pyramid becomes wider and looks less like a pyramid and instead becomes more box-shaped, the population lives through younger ages with very low risk of death and dies at an old age. The demographic structure of a healthy population at the final stage of the demographic transition is the box shape that we see for the entire world for 2100.

The Demography of the World Population from 1950 to 21006
Population pyramid 1950 to 2100

What are the causes of population growth?

How many people die and how many are born each year?

The world population has grown rapidly, particularly over the past century: in 1900 there were fewer than 2 billion people on the planet; today there are 7.7 billion.

The change in the world population is determined by two metrics: the number of babies born, and the number of people dying.

How many are born each year?

The stacked area chart shows the number of births by world region from 1950 to 2015.

In 2015, there were approximately 140 million births – 43 million more than back in 1950

The line chart shows the same data, but also includes the UN projection until the end of the century. It is possible to switch this chart to any other country or world region in the world.

The first chart shows the annual number of deaths over the same period.

In 2015 around 55 million people died. The world population therefore increased by 84 million in that year (that is an increase of 1.14%).

The line chart shows the same data, but also includes the UN projection until the end of the century. Again it is possible to switch this chart to any other country or world region in the world.

As the number of deaths approaches the number of births global population growth will come to an end

How do we expect this to change in the coming decades? What does this mean for population growth?

Population projections show that the yearly number of births will remain at around 140 million per year over the coming decades. It is then expected to slowly decline in the second-half of the century. As the world population ages, the annual number of deaths is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades until it reaches a similar annual number as global births towards the end of the century.

As the number of births is expected to slowly fall and the number of deaths to rise the global population growth rate will continue to fall. This is when the world population will stop to increase in the future.

Why is rapid population growth a temporary phenomenon?

The Demographic Transition

Population growth is determined by births and deaths and every country has seen very substantial changes in both: In our overview on how health has changed over the long run you find the data on the dramatic decline of child mortality that has been achieved in all parts of the world. And in our coverage of fertility you find the data and research on how modern socio-economic changes – most importantly structural changes to the economy and a rise of the status and opportunities for women – contributed to a very substantial reduction of the number of children that couples have.

But declining mortality rates and declining fertility rates alone would not explain why the population increases. If they happened at the same time the growth rate of the population would not change in this transition. What is crucial here is the timing at which mortality and fertility changes.

The model that explains why rapid population growth happens is called the ‘demographic transition’. It is shown in the schematic figure. It is a beautifully simple model that describes the observed pattern in countries around the world and is one of the great insights of demography.9

The demographic transition is a sequence of five stages:

  • Stage 1: high mortality and high birth rates. In the long time before rapid population growth the birth rate in a population is high, but since the death rate is also high we observe no or only very small population growth. This describes the reality through most of our history. Societies around the world remained in stage 1 for many millennia as the long-run perspective on extremely slow population growth highlighted. At this stage the population pyramid is broad at the base but since the mortality rate is high across all ages – and the risk of death is particularly high for children – the pyramid gets much narrower towards the top.
  • Stage 2:mortality falls but birth rates still high. In the second phase the health of the population slowly starts to improve and the death rate starts to fall. Since the health of the population has already improved, but fertility still remains as high as before, this is the stage of the transition at which the size of the population starts to grow rapidly. Historically it is the exceptional time at which the extended family with many (surviving) children is common.
  • Stage 3: mortality low and birth rates fall. Later the birth rate starts to fall and consequentially the rate at which the population grows begins to decline as well. Why the fertility rate falls is a question that we answer here. But to summarize the main points: When the mortality of children is not as high as it once was parents adapt to the healthier environment and choose to have fewer children; the economy is undergoing structural changes that makes children less economically valuable; and women are empowered socially and within partnerships and have fewer children than before.
  • Stage 4:mortality low and birth rates low. Rapid population growth comes to an end in stage 4 as the birth rate falls to a similar level as the already low mortality rate. The population pyramid is now box shaped; as the mortality rate at young ages is now very low the younger cohorts are now very similar in size and only at an old age the cohorts get smaller very rapidly.
  • Stage 5:mortality low and some evidence of rising fertility. The demographic transition describes changes over the course of socio-economic modernization. What happens at a very high level of development is not a question we can answer with certainty since only few societies have reached this stage. But we do have some good evidence – which we review here – that at very high levels of development fertility is rising again. Not to the very high levels of pre-modern times, but to a fertility rate that gets close to 2 children per woman. What level exactly the fertility rate will reach is crucial for the question of what happens to population growth in the long run. If the fertility rate stays below 2 children per woman then we will see a decline of the population size in the long run. If indeed the fertility rate will rise above 2 children per woman we will see a slow long-run increase of the population size.
Demographic transition schematic

Empirical evidence for the demographic transition

Rapid population growth is a temporary phenomenon

If fertility fell in lockstep with mortality we would not have seen an increase in the population at all. The demographic transition works through the asynchronous timing of the two fundamental demographic changes: The decline of the death rate is followed by the decline of birth rates.

This decline of the death rate followed by a decline of the birth rate is something we observe with great regularity and independent of the culture or religion of the population.

The chart presents the empirical evidence for the demographic transition for five very different countries in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. In all countries we observed the pattern of the demographic transition, first a decline of mortality that starts the population boom and then a decline of fertility which brings the population boom to an end. The population boom is a temporary event.

In the past the size of the population was stagnant because of high mortality, now country after country is moving into a world in which the population is stagnant because of low fertility.

Demographic transition in 5 countries, 1820-201010
Ourworldindata demographic transition 5 countriesi

England and Wales’s demographic transition

Perhaps the longest available view of the demographic transition comes from data for England and Wales. In 1981, Anthony Wrigley and Roger Schofield11 published a major research project analyzing English parish registers—a unique source that allowed them to trace demographic changes for the three centuries prior to state records. According to the researchers, “England is exceptionally fortunate in having several thousand parish registers that begin before 1600”; collectively, with their early start and breadth of coverage, these registers form an excellent resource. As far as we know, there is no comparable data for any other country up until the mid-eighteenth century (see the following section for Sweden, where recordkeeping began in 1749).

The chart shows the birth and death rates in England and Wales over the span of nearly 500 years. It stitches together Wrigley and Schofield’s data for the years 1541-1861 with two other sources up to 2015 (click on the chart’s ‘sources’ tab for details). As we can see, a growing gap opens up between the birth and death rate after 1750, creating a population explosion. Around the 1870’s, we begin to see the third stage of the demographic transition. As the birth rate starts to follow the death rate’s decline, that gap between the two starts to shrink, slowing down the population growth rate.

Sweden’s demographic transition

Zooming in on one of these countries, we take a look at Sweden’s demographic transition. The country’s long history of population recordkeeping—starting in 1749 with their original statistical office, ‘the Tabellverket’ (Office of Tables)—makes it a particularly interesting case study of the mechanisms driving population change.

Statistics Sweden, the successor of the Tabellverket, publishes data on both deaths and births since recordkeeping began more than 250 years ago. These records suggest that around the year 1800, the Swedish death rate started falling, mainly due to improvements in health and living standards, especially for children.12

Yet while death rates were falling, birth rates remained at a constant pre-modern level until the 1860s. During this period and up until the first half of the 20th century, there was a sustained gap between the frequency of deaths and the frequency of births. It was because of this gap that the Swedish population increased. The following visualization supports these observations.

Changes to birth and death rate over time around the world

The visualization presents the birth and death rate for all countries of the world over the last 5 decades. You can see the change over by moving the slider underneath back and forth or by pressing the “play” button. Countries per continent can also be highlighted by hovering and clicking on them in the legend on the right side of the chart.

By visualising this change we see how in country after country the death rate fell and the birth rate followed – countries moved to left-hand-side first and then fell to the bottom left corner.

Today, different countries straddle different stages of the model. Most developed countries have reached stage four and have low birth and death rates, while developing countries continue to make their way through the stages.

How development affects population growth

There are two important relationships that help explain how the level of development of a country affects its population growth rates:

  1. Fertility rate is the parameter which matters most for population changes – it is the strongest determinant;
  2. As a country gets richer (or ‘more developed’), fertility rates tend to fall.

Combining these two relationships, we would expect that as a country develops, population growth rates decline.

Generally, this is true. In the visualization, we see how the population growth rate has changed for ‘more developed’, ‘less developed’ and ‘least developed’ countries (based on UN categorization), and how they are projected to change through 2099.

Here we see that population growth rates are lowest in the most developed regions – starting at just over 1% in the 1950s and falling to just 0.19% today. ‘Less developed’ regions peaked later, at a higher growth rate (2.55%) and have declined more slowly. ‘Least developed’ regions did not peak in growth rate until the early 1990s.

Over the last two decades we have seen declining population growth rates in countries at all stages of development.

Population momentum

If the number of children is not growing, why is the population still increasing?

In 1965 the average woman on the planet had 5 children. 50 years later this statistic – called the total fertility rate – has fallen to less than half. The first panel in this chart shows this fundamental change.

The total fertility rate at which a population replaces itself from one generation to the next is called the replacement fertility rate. If no children died before they grew up to have children themselves the replacement fertility rate would be 2. Because some children die, the global replacement fertility rate is currently 2.3 and therefore only slightly lower than the actual global fertility rate. Why then is global population growth not coming to an end yet?

The number of births per woman in the reproductive age bracket is only one of two drivers that matter here. The second one is the number of women in the reproductive age bracket.

If there were few women in the reproductive age bracket the number of births will be low even when the fertility rate is high. At times when an increasing share of women enter the reproductive age bracket the population can keep growing even if the fertility rate is falling. This is what demographers refer to as ‘population momentum’ and it explains why the number of children in the world will not decline as rapidly as the fertility rate.

The second chart in this panel shows that the population growth over the last decades resulted in increasingly larger cohorts of women in the reproductive age bracket. As a result, the number of births will stay high even as the number of births per woman is falling. This is what the bottom panel in the chart shows. According to the UN projections, the two drivers will cancel each other out so that the number of births will stay close to the current level for many decades.

The number of births is projected to change little over the course of this century. In the middle of the 21st century the number of births is projected to reach a peak at 143 million and then to decline slowly to 131 million births by 2100. The coming decades will be very different from the last. While the annual number of births increased by 43 million since 1950 we are now close to what the late Hans Rosling called “the age of peak child” – the moment in global demographic history at which the number of children in the world stops increasing. How close we are to peak child we looked at in a more detailed post.

Population momentum is one important driver for high population growth. But it of course also matters that all of us today live much longer than our ancestors just a few generations ago. Life expectancy is now twice as long in all world regions.

In all of this it is important to keep in mind that these are projections and how the future will actually play out will depend on what we are doing today.

Population momentum is driven by the increasingly large cohorts of women in the reproductive age bracket. It’s only when both the fertility rate and the number of women level off that population momentum stops. And this is when global population growth will come to an end. Hans Rosling explained it better than anyone, with the help of toilet rolls.

Population momentum 1

How does migration affect country populations?

At the global level, population changes are determined by the balance of only two variables: the number of people born each year, and the number who die.

At regional or country levels there is a third variable to consider: migration into (immigration) or migration out of (emigration) the region/country. How large of an impact does migration have on population changes across the world?

In this chart we see the annual population growth rate under two scenarios:

  • population growth rate with migration – this includes the balance of births, deaths plus migration;
  • a hypothetical population growth rate if there was zero migration (i.e. it is based only on the balance of births and deaths).

The example shown here is the United States but you can explore this data for any country or region using the “change country” button on the interactive chart.

In the United States we see that since the early 1950s, migration into the USA has exceeded emigration out of the country. This means net migration has been positive, and resulted in a higher population growth rate than would have occurred in the scenario with zero migration. In 2015, for example, the actual population growth rate was 0.68%. With zero migration, this would have been 0.38%.

This is also true for most countries across Europe. In fact, population growth would have been negative (i.e. the population would have been in decline) in Europe since the early 1990s without migration. In 2015, the European population increased by 0.17%; with no migration, it would have decreased by 0.02%.

The opposite is of course true for countries where emigration (out of the country) is higher than immigration. Take Nepal as an example: in the mid-1990s its actual population growth rate has been lower than it would have been in the absence of migration. In 2015, its growth rate was 0.66%. With zero migration it would have been 1.43%.

Population age structure

This article previously covered aspects of population age structure; you now find this material in our entry on Age Structure.

The track record of the UN projections

How much do population estimates differ?

It’s expected that sources will differ in their projections for future populations: although the UN projections to date have been remarkably accurate, they are based on a number of assumptions regarding the change in fertility, mortality and migration over time.

But historic and current population estimates between sources are also not identical. The UN Population Division publishes the most-widely adopted figures, but there are a few other key data sources including the US Census Bureau and Population Reference Bureau (PRB).

How do these sources compare? In the chart we see the comparison between the UN (shown in red) and US Census Bureau (in blue) estimates globally and by region. Global estimates have varied by around 0.5-1.5%.

The largest variation comes from estimates of Asia, Africa and Latin America – where census data and underlying data sources will be less complete and lower quality. This means some interpretation and judgement is necessary from expert demographers within each organization. It’s in this process of expert interpretation that most of the difference will arise.

A comparison of 2015 estimates between the UN, US Census Bureau and PBS are shown in this table.13,14,15

Here we see that the UN and PBS estimates are very similar at around 7.34 to 7.35 billion. US Census Bureau estimates are around 1-2% lower at 7.25 billion.

With known gaps in census data and underlying sources, it’s recommended that population estimates are given to only 3 to 4 significant figures. Quoting them to more gives a false sense of precision. Across the sources, we can say that there were 7.25 to 7.4 billion people in the world in 2015.

Global and regional population estimates us census bureau vs un v6 850x600
Click to open interactive version
SourceWorld population (2015)
United Nations Population Division (2017 Revision)7,383,009,000
US Census Bureau (2017)7,247,892,788
Population Reference Bureau (2015)7,336,435,000

How are population revisions created?

The most discussed estimates of world population from the last century are those from the UN Population Division. These estimates are revised periodically and aim to be consistent and comparable within and across countries and time.

The methodology used by the UN to produce their estimates and projections is explained extensively in the World Population Prospects’ Methodology Report.

In short, estimates of the population in the past (i.e. 1950-2015) are produced by starting with a base population for 1 July 1950 and computing subsequent populations based on the components that drive population change (fertility, mortality, and international migration). The estimates of these components are taken directly from national statistical sources or—where only partial or poor-quality data exists—are estimated by the Population Division staff. Population counts from periodic censuses are used as benchmarks. This calculation is called the “cohort-component” method because it estimates the change in population by age and sex (cohort) on the basis of the three afore-mentioned demographic components: fertility, mortality, and international migration.

One of the main implications of using the cohort-component method is that it sometimes leads to marked inconsistencies with official country statistics. The process of ‘revising’ the estimates involves incorporating new information about the demography of each country.

What is the quality of birth and death registration?

The standard methodology used for producing population estimates relies on the so-called cohort-model. Providing high-quality estimates requires reliable and up-to-date census data.

Crucial to population estimates are birth and mortality rates: this census data therefore relies birth registration and death reporting.

The two maps show the completeness of birth and death reporting across the world. Many countries, particularly those in the least developed regions of the world, have limited census data.

For countries with no data in one or two decades before each revision, the UN relies on other methodologies. One is to derive estimates by extrapolating trends from countries in the same region with a socio-economic profile considered close to the country in question.

Estimates of ancient population

As discussed in the previous section, there are a number of studies providing historic population data. The most commonly cited source is McEvedy and Jones (1978).

  • Data Source: McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones (1978), “Atlas of World Population History,” Facts on File, New York, pp. 342-351; relying on archeological and anthropological evidence, as well as historical documents such as Roman and Chinese censuses
  • Description of available measures: Population
  • Time span: 400BCE-2,000CE
  • Geographical coverage: Global by country and regions

This above source is an input used in producing the HYDE project data, as well as other datasets. Further references to this source are available in Goldewijk, K. K., Beusen, A., & Janssen, P. (2010). Long-term dynamic modelling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene.

History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE)

  • Data Source: History Database of the Global Environment project, using estimates from McEvedy and Jones (1978), Livi-Bacci (2007)16, Maddison (2001)17, and Denevan (1992)18
  • Description of available measures: Geographic distribution of the world population
  • Time span: 10,000BCE-2,000CE
  • Geographical coverage: Global at a 5 arc-minute spatial resolution
  • Link:http://themasites.pbl.nl/tridion/en/themasites/hyde/basicdrivingfactors/population/index-2.html

  • The data from the HYDE project is in turn the basis for the population series published by the ‘Clio-Infra’ project

    • Data Source: HYDE project and UN Population Division
    • Description of available measures: Population
    • Time span: 1,500-2,000CE
    • Geographical coverage: Global by country
    • Link:www.clio-infra.eu/

    Estimates of population in recent history and projections

    • Data Source: UN Population Division based on ‘cohort-component’ framework by demographic trends (see Data Quality section)
    • Description of available measures:
      ◦ Population, by Five-Year Age Group and Sex
      ◦ Population Sex Ratio (males per 100 females)
      ◦ Median Age
      ◦ Population Growth Per Year
      ◦ Crude Birth Rate
      ◦ Crude Death Rate
      ◦ Net Reproduction Rate
      ◦ Total Fertility Rate
      ◦ Life Expectancy at Birth by Sex
      ◦ Net Migration Rate
      ◦ Sex ratio at birth
      ◦ Births
      ◦ Births by Age-group of Mother
      ◦ Age-specific Fertility Rates
      ◦ Women Aged 15-49
      ◦ Deaths by Sex
      ◦ Infant Mortality
      ◦ Mortality Under Age 5
      ◦ Dependency Ratios
      ◦ Population by Age: 0-4, 0-14, 5-14, 15-24, 15-59, 15-64, 60+, 65+, 80+
    • Time span: 1950-2015
    • Geographical coverage: Global by country
    • Link:http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/

    Gridded Population of the World (GPW)

    • Data Source: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), published by the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SDAC) based on census data
    • Description of available measures: Population
    • Time span: 1990-2010
    • Geographical coverage: Global at a 2.5 arc-minute spatial resolution
    • Link:http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/gpw-v3
    • Notes: Within the CIESIN, the Anthropogenic Biomes map the distribution of the world population at different points in time: 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000. These maps focus on the varying impact of humans on the environment.
    • Data Publisher: University of Iowa (originally developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Defense, U.S.)
    • Data Source: Annual mid-year national population estimates from the Geographic Studies Branch, US Bureau of Census
    • Description of available measures: Population and ‘ambient population’ (a measure of person-hours accounting for varying presence throughout the day in commercial areas)
    • Time span: 1998-2012, but authors warn of inter-temporal comparability issues
    • Geographical coverage: Global at 30 arc-second grid spatial resolution (highest population resolution available)
    • Link:http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/gpw-v3

    World Development Indicators

    • Data Publisher: World Bank
    • Data Source: UN Population Division
    • Description of available measures: Population growth (annual %)
    • Time span: 1981-2015
    • Geographical coverage: Global by country
    • Link:http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/

    Compilations of census data and other sources

    Historical population data on a sub-national level – including their administrative divisions and principal towns – is collected by Jan Lahmeyer and published at his website www.populstat.info.

    The Minnesota Population Center publishes various high-quality datasets based on census data beginning in 1790. At the time of writing this source was online at www.pop.umn.edu/index.php. It focuses on North America and Europe.

    The Data & Information Services Center (DISC) Archive at University of Wisconsin-Madison provides access to census data and population datasets (mostly for the Americas). At the time of writing this source was online at http://www.disc.wisc.edu.

    The International Database published by the U.S. Census Bureau provides data for the time 1950-2100. At the time of writing this source was online at https://www.census.gov/data-tools/demo/idb/informationGateway.php.

    The Atlas of the Biosphere publishes data on Population Density. At the time of writing this source was online at www.sage.wisc.edu/atlas/maps.

    Endnotes

    1. Here, we use an arbitrary cut-off of 10,000 square kilometers as the definition of a ‘large’ country.

    2. As per 2011 estimates from Carl Haub (2011), “How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?” Population Reference Bureau.

    3. See for example Kremer (1993) – Population growth and technological change: one million BC to 1990. In the Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 108, No. 3, 681-716. Online here.

    4. John Hawks, Keith Hunley, Sang-Hee Lee, Milford Wolpoff; Population Bottlenecks and Pleistocene Human Evolution, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, Pages 2–22. Online here.

    5. The global child mortality rate was 22.5% according to the UN.

    6. Data source: United Nations — World Population Prospects 2017

    7. For more information on the “population dividend” see: http://www.unfpa.org/demographic-dividend and the work of David E. Bloom.

    8. The ratio of under-15-year-olds to the working-age population (15-64):
      1950: 1.54 billion / 0.869 billion = 1.8
      2017: 4.94 billion / 1.96 billion = 2.5
      2100: 6.69 billion /1.97 billion = 3.4
      The data is shown here.

    9. For a history and literature review of the theory’s development, see: Kirk, Dudley. “Demographic transition theory.” Population studies 50.3 (1996): 361-387. Available online here.

    10. The data on birth rates, death rates and the total population is taken from the International Historical Statistics (IHS), edited by Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. (April 2013). The online version is available here. As a printed version it is published by Palgrave.

    11. Wrigley, E. A., Schofield, R. S., & Schofield, R. (1989). The population history of England 1541-1871. Cambridge University Press.

    12. Before 1800 more than 20% of Swedish babies died before they reached their first birthday, and of those who survived, another 20% died before their 10th birthday (see Croix, Lindh, and Malmberg (2009), Demographic change and economic growth in Sweden: 1750–2050. In Journal of Macroeconomics, 31, 1, 132–148).

    13. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, DVD Edition.

    14. U.S. Census Bureau (2017). International Data Base.

    15. Population Reference Bureau (2015). 2015 World Population Data Sheet.

    16. Livi-Bacci (2007), “A Concise History of World Population”. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    17. Maddison, A. (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    18. Denevan, W. M. (1992). The pristine myth: the landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82(3), 369-385.

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    Citation

    Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. This entry can be cited as:

    Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina (2013) - "World Population Growth". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth' [Online Resource]

    BibTeX citation

    @article{owidworldpopulationgrowth, author = {Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina}, title = {World Population Growth}, journal = {Our World in Data}, year = {2013}, note = {https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth} }
    Sours: https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth

    World population total

    Current World Population

    World Population: Past, Present, and Future

    (move and expand the bar at the bottom of the chart to navigate through time)

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    The chart above illustrates how world population has changed throughout history. View the full tabulated data.

    At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the population of the world was approximately 5 million. Over the 8,000-year period up to 1 A.D. it grew to 200 million (some estimate 300 million or even 600, suggesting how imprecise population estimates of early historical periods can be), with a growth rate of under 0.05% per year.

    A tremendous change occurred with the industrial revolution: whereas it had taken all of human history until around 1800 for world population to reach one billion, the second billion was achieved in only 130 years (1930), the third billion in 30 years (1960), the fourth billion in 15 years (1974), and the fifth billion in only 13 years (1987).

    • During the 20th century alone, the population in the world has grown from 1.65 billion to 6 billion.
    • In 1970, there were roughly half as many people in the world as there are now.
    • Because of declining growth rates, it will now take over 200 years to double again.

    Wonder how big was the world's population when you were born?
    Check out this simple wizard or this more elaborated one to find out.


    Sources:

    Growth Rate

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    Population in the world is currently (2020) growing at a rate of around 1.05% per year (down from 1.08% in 2019, 1.10% in 2018, and 1.12% in 2017). The current average population increase is estimated at 81 million people per year.

    Annual growth rate reached its peak in the late 1960s, when it was at around 2%. The rate of increase has nearly halved since then, and will continue to decline in the coming years.

    World population will therefore continue to grow in the 21st century, but at a much slower rate compared to the recent past. World population has doubled (100% increase) in 40 years from 1959 (3 billion) to 1999 (6 billion). It is now estimated that it will take another nearly 40 years to increase by another 50% to become 9 billion by 2037.

    The latest world population projections indicate that world population will reach 10 billion persons in the year 2057.

    World Population (2020 and historical)

    View the complete population historical table

    Year
    (July 1)
    PopulationYearly %
    Change
    Yearly
    Change
    Median
    Age
    Fertility
    Rate
    Density
    (P/Km²)
    Urban
    Pop %
    Urban Population
    20207,794,798,7391.05 %81,330,63930.92.475256.2 %4,378,993,944
    20197,713,468,1001.08 %82,377,06029.82.515255.7 %4,299,438,618
    20187,631,091,0401.10 %83,232,11529.82.515155.3 %4,219,817,318
    20177,547,858,9251.12 %83,836,87629.82.515154.9 %4,140,188,594
    20167,464,022,0491.14 %84,224,91029.82.515054.4 %4,060,652,683
    20157,379,797,1391.19 %84,594,707302.525054.0 %3,981,497,663
    20106,956,823,6031.24 %82,983,315282.584751.7 %3,594,868,146
    20056,541,907,0271.26 %79,682,641272.654449.2 %3,215,905,863
    20006,143,493,8231.35 %79,856,169262.784146.7 %2,868,307,513
    19955,744,212,9791.52 %83,396,384253.013944.8 %2,575,505,235
    19905,327,231,0611.81 %91,261,864243.443643.0 %2,290,228,096
    19854,870,921,7401.79 %82,583,645233.593341.2 %2,007,939,063
    19804,458,003,5141.79 %75,704,582233.863039.3 %1,754,201,029
    19754,079,480,6061.97 %75,808,712224.472737.7 %1,538,624,994
    19703,700,437,0462.07 %72,170,690224.932536.6 %1,354,215,496
    19653,339,583,5971.93 %60,926,770225.0222N.A.N.A.
    19603,034,949,7481.82 %52,385,962234.902033.7 %1,023,845,517
    19552,773,019,9361.80 %47,317,757234.9719N.A.N.A.

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    World Population Forecast (2020-2050)

    View population projections for all years (up to 2100)

    Year
    (July 1)
    PopulationYearly %
    Change
    Yearly
    Change
    Median
    Age
    Fertility
    Rate
    Density
    (P/Km²)
    Urban
    Pop %
    Urban Population
    20207,794,798,7391.10 %83,000,320312.475256.2 %4,378,993,944
    20258,184,437,4600.98 %77,927,744322.545558.3 %4,774,646,303
    20308,548,487,4000.87 %72,809,988332.625760.4 %5,167,257,546
    20358,887,524,2130.78 %67,807,363342.706062.5 %5,555,833,477
    20409,198,847,2400.69 %62,264,605352.776264.6 %5,938,249,026
    20459,481,803,2740.61 %56,591,207352.856466.6 %6,312,544,819
    20509,735,033,9900.53 %50,646,143362.956568.6 %6,679,756,162

    World Population Milestones

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    10 Billion (2057)

    The United Nations projects world population to reach 10 billion in the year 2057.

    9 Billion (2037)

    World population is expected to reach 9 billion in the year 2037.

    8 Billion (2023)

    World population is expected to reach 8 billion people in 2023 according to the United Nations (in 2026 according to the U.S. Census Bureau).

    7.9 Billion (2021)

    The current world population is 7.9 billion as of October 2021 [1] according to the most recent United Nations estimates elaborated by Worldometer. The term "World Population" refers to the human population (the total number of humans currently living) of the world.

    7 Billion (2011)

    According to the United Nations, world population reached 7 Billion on October 31, 2011.
    The US Census Bureau made a lower estimate, for which the 7 billion mark was only reached on March 12, 2012.

    6 Billion (1999)

    According to the United Nations, the 6 billion figure was reached on October 12, 1999(celebrated as the Day of 6 Billion). According to the U.S. Census Bureau instead, the six billion milestone was reached on July 22, 1999, at about 3:49 AM GMT. Yet, according to the U.S. Census, the date and time of when 6 billion was reached will probably change because the already uncertain estimates are constantly being updated.

    Previous Milestones

    • 5 Billion: 1987
    • 4 Billion: 1974
    • 3 Billion: 1960
    • 2 Billion: 1930
    • 1 Billion: 1804

    Summary Table

    1 - 1804 (1803 years): 0.2 to 1 bil.

    1804 - 2011 (207 years): from 1 billion to 7 billion

    Year

    1

    1000

    1500

    1650

    1750

    1804

    1850

    1900

    1930

    1950

    1960

    1974

    1980

    1987

    1999

    2011

    2020

    2023

    2030

    2037

    2046

    2057

    2100

    Population

    0.2

    0.275

    0.45

    0.5

    0.7

    1

    1.2

    1.6

    2

    2.55

    3

    4

    4.5

    5

    6

    7

    7.8

    8

    8.5

    9

    9.5

    10

    10.9


    World Population by Region

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    #RegionPopulation
    (2020)
    Yearly
    Change
    Net
    Change
    Density
    (P/Km²)
    Land Area
    (Km²)
    Migrants
    (net)
    Fert.
    Rate
    Med.
    Age
    Urban
    Pop %
    World
    Share
    1Asia4,641,054,7750.86 %39,683,57715031,033,131-1,729,1122.2320 %59.5 %
    2Africa1,340,598,1472.49 %32,533,9524529,648,481-463,0244.4200 %17.2 %
    3Europe747,636,0260.06 %453,2753422,134,9001,361,0111.6430 %9.6 %
    4Latin America and the Caribbean653,962,3310.9 %5,841,3743220,139,378-521,4992310 %8.4 %
    5Northern America368,869,6470.62 %2,268,6832018,651,6601,196,4001.8390 %4.7 %
    6Oceania42,677,8131.31 %549,77858,486,460156,2262.4330 %0.5 %

    World Population Density (people/km2)

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    Population density map of the world showing not only countries but also many subdivisions (regions, states, provinces). See also: World Map


    Courtesy of Junuxx at en.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons


    World Population by Religion

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    According to a recent study (based on the 2010 world population of 6.9 billion) by The Pew Forum, there are:

    • 2,173,180,000 Christians (31% of world population), of which 50% are Catholic, 37% Protestant, 12% Orthodox, and 1% other.
    • 1,598,510,000 Muslims (23%), of which 87-90% are Sunnis, 10-13% Shia.
    • 1,126,500,000 No Religion affiliation (16%): atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion. One-in-five people (20%) in the United States are religiously unaffiliated.
    • 1,033,080,000 Hindus (15%), the overwhelming majority (94%) of which live in India.
    •    487,540,000 Buddhists (7%), of which half live in China.
    •    405,120,000 Folk Religionists (6%): faiths that are closely associated with a particular group of people, ethnicity or tribe.
    •       58,110,000 Other Religions (1%): Baha’i faith, Taoism, Jainism, Shintoism, Sikhism, Tenrikyo, Wicca, Zoroastrianism and many others.
    •       13,850,000 Jews (0.2%), four-fifths of which live in two countries: United States (41%) and Israel (41%).

    World Population by Country

    #Country (or dependency)Population
    (2020)
    Yearly
    Change
    Net
    Change
    Density
    (P/Km²)
    Land Area
    (Km²)
    Migrants
    (net)
    Fert.
    Rate
    Med.
    Age
    Urban
    Pop %
    World
    Share
    1China1,439,323,7760.39 %5,540,0901539,388,211-348,3991.693860.8 %18.5 %
    2India1,380,004,3850.99 %13,586,6314642,973,190-532,6872.24022835 %17.7 %
    3United States331,002,6510.59 %1,937,734369,147,420954,8061.77643882.8 %4.2 %
    4Indonesia273,523,6151.07 %2,898,0471511,811,570-98,9552.31953056.4 %3.5 %
    5Pakistan220,892,3402 %4,327,022287770,880-233,3793.552335.1 %2.8 %
    6Brazil212,559,4170.72 %1,509,890258,358,14021,2001.743387.6 %2.7 %
    7Nigeria206,139,5892.58 %5,175,990226910,770-60,0005.41681852 %2.6 %
    8Bangladesh164,689,3831.01 %1,643,2221,265130,170-369,5012.0522839.4 %2.1 %
    9Russia145,934,4620.04 %62,206916,376,870182,4561.82054073.7 %1.9 %
    10Mexico128,932,7531.06 %1,357,224661,943,950-60,0002.142983.8 %1.7 %
    11Japan126,476,461-0.3 %-383,840347364,55571,5601.36974891.8 %1.6 %
    12Ethiopia114,963,5882.57 %2,884,8581151,000,00030,0004.31921.3 %1.5 %
    13Philippines109,581,0781.35 %1,464,463368298,170-67,1522.582647.5 %1.4 %
    14Egypt102,334,4041.94 %1,946,331103995,450-38,0333.332543 %1.3 %
    15Vietnam97,338,5790.91 %876,473314310,070-80,0002.05563237.7 %1.2 %
    16DR Congo89,561,4033.19 %2,770,836402,267,05023,8615.96351745.6 %1.1 %
    17Turkey84,339,0671.09 %909,452110769,630283,9222.083275.7 %1.1 %
    18Iran83,992,9491.3 %1,079,043521,628,550-55,0002.153275.5 %1.1 %
    19Germany83,783,9420.32 %266,897240348,560543,8221.5864676.3 %1.1 %
    20Thailand69,799,9780.25 %174,396137510,89019,4441.53464051.1 %0.9 %
    21United Kingdom67,886,0110.53 %355,839281241,930260,6501.754083.2 %0.9 %
    22France65,273,5110.22 %143,783119547,55736,5271.85234281.5 %0.8 %
    23Italy60,461,826-0.15 %-88,249206294,140148,9431.334769.5 %0.8 %
    24Tanzania59,734,2182.98 %1,728,75567885,800-40,0764.92371837 %0.8 %
    25South Africa59,308,6901.28 %750,420491,213,090145,4052.41392866.7 %0.8 %
    26Myanmar54,409,8000.67 %364,38083653,290-163,3132.172931.4 %0.7 %
    27Kenya53,771,2962.28 %1,197,32394569,140-10,0003.522027.8 %0.7 %
    28South Korea51,269,1850.09 %43,87752797,23011,7311.114481.8 %0.7 %
    29Colombia50,882,8911.08 %543,448461,109,500204,7961.823180.4 %0.7 %
    30Spain46,754,7780.04 %18,00294498,80040,0001.334580.3 %0.6 %
    31Uganda45,741,0073.32 %1,471,413229199,810168,6945.011725.7 %0.6 %
    32Argentina45,195,7740.93 %415,097172,736,6904,8002.2683292.8 %0.6 %
    33Algeria43,851,0441.85 %797,990182,381,740-10,0003.052972.9 %0.6 %
    34Sudan43,849,2602.42 %1,036,022251,765,048-50,0004.43452035 %0.6 %
    35Ukraine43,733,762-0.59 %-259,87675579,32010,0001.44354169.4 %0.6 %
    36Iraq40,222,4932.32 %912,71093434,3207,8343.6822173.1 %0.5 %
    37Afghanistan38,928,3462.33 %886,59260652,860-62,9204.55521825.4 %0.5 %
    38Poland37,846,611-0.11 %-41,157124306,230-29,3951.42024260.2 %0.5 %
    39Canada37,742,1540.89 %331,10749,093,510242,0321.5254181.3 %0.5 %
    40Morocco36,910,5601.2 %438,79183446,300-51,4192.423063.8 %0.5 %
    41Saudi Arabia34,813,8711.59 %545,343162,149,690134,9792.343284 %0.4 %
    42Uzbekistan33,469,2031.48 %487,48779425,400-8,8632.432850.1 %0.4 %
    43Peru32,971,8541.42 %461,401261,280,00099,0692.273179.1 %0.4 %
    44Angola32,866,2723.27 %1,040,977261,246,7006,4135.551766.7 %0.4 %
    45Malaysia32,365,9991.3 %416,22299328,55050,0002.01053078.4 %0.4 %
    46Mozambique31,255,4352.93 %889,39940786,380-5,0004.88581838.3 %0.4 %
    47Ghana31,072,9402.15 %655,084137227,540-10,0003.89282256.7 %0.4 %
    48Yemen29,825,9642.28 %664,04256527,970-30,0003.83722038.4 %0.4 %
    49Nepal29,136,8081.85 %528,098203143,35041,7101.9342521.4 %0.4 %
    50Venezuela28,435,940-0.28 %-79,88932882,050-653,2492.28330N.A.0.4 %
    51Madagascar27,691,0182.68 %721,71148581,795-1,5004.10852038.5 %0.4 %
    52Cameroon26,545,8632.59 %669,48356472,710-4,8004.6031956.3 %0.3 %
    53Côte d'Ivoire26,378,2742.57 %661,73083318,000-8,0004.681951.3 %0.3 %
    54North Korea25,778,8160.44 %112,655214120,410-5,4031.913562.5 %0.3 %
    55Australia25,499,8841.18 %296,68637,682,300158,2461.83163885.9 %0.3 %
    56Niger24,206,6443.84 %895,929191,266,7004,0006.951516.5 %0.3 %
    57Taiwan23,816,7750.18 %42,89967335,41030,0011.154278.9 %0.3 %
    58Sri Lanka21,413,2490.42 %89,51634162,710-97,9862.21023418.4 %0.3 %
    59Burkina Faso20,903,2732.86 %581,89576273,600-25,0005.23151830.6 %0.3 %
    60Mali20,250,8333.02 %592,802171,220,190-40,0005.92151644 %0.3 %
    61Romania19,237,691-0.66 %-126,86684230,170-73,9991.61984354.6 %0.2 %
    62Malawi19,129,9522.69 %501,20520394,280-16,0534.251818.5 %0.2 %
    63Chile19,116,2010.87 %164,16326743,532111,7081.653584.8 %0.2 %
    64Kazakhstan18,776,7071.21 %225,28072,699,700-18,0002.76383157.7 %0.2 %
    65Zambia18,383,9552.93 %522,92525743,390-8,0004.65551845.3 %0.2 %
    66Guatemala17,915,5681.9 %334,096167107,160-9,2152.89892351.8 %0.2 %
    67Ecuador17,643,0541.55 %269,39271248,36036,4002.442863 %0.2 %
    68Syria17,500,6582.52 %430,52395183,630-427,3912.83982660 %0.2 %
    69Netherlands17,134,8720.22 %37,74250833,72016,0001.664392.5 %0.2 %
    70Senegal16,743,9272.75 %447,56387192,530-20,0004.651949.4 %0.2 %
    71Cambodia16,718,9651.41 %232,42395176,520-30,0002.52382624.2 %0.2 %
    72Chad16,425,8643 %478,988131,259,2002,0005.79731723.3 %0.2 %
    73Somalia15,893,2222.92 %450,31725627,340-40,0006.121746.8 %0.2 %
    74Zimbabwe14,862,9241.48 %217,45638386,850-116,8583.62551938.4 %0.2 %
    75Guinea13,132,7952.83 %361,54953245,720-4,0004.73841838.6 %0.2 %
    76Rwanda12,952,2182.58 %325,26852524,670-9,0004.12017.6 %0.2 %
    77Benin12,123,2002.73 %322,049108112,760-2,0004.86751948.4 %0.2 %
    78Burundi11,890,7843.12 %360,20446325,6802,0015.451713.8 %0.2 %
    79Tunisia11,818,6191.06 %123,90076155,360-4,0002.23370.1 %0.2 %
    80Bolivia11,673,0211.39 %159,921111,083,300-9,5042.752669.3 %0.1 %
    81Belgium11,589,6230.44 %50,29538330,28048,0001.71484298.3 %0.1 %
    82Haiti11,402,5281.24 %139,45141427,560-35,0002.962456.9 %0.1 %
    83Cuba11,326,616-0.06 %-6,867106106,440-14,4001.61664278.3 %0.1 %
    84South Sudan11,193,7251.19 %131,61218610,952-174,2004.73591924.6 %0.1 %
    85Dominican Republic10,847,9101.01 %108,95222548,320-30,0002.362884.5 %0.1 %
    86Czech Republic (Czechia)10,708,9810.18 %19,77213977,24022,0111.64134373.5 %0.1 %
    87Greece10,423,054-0.48 %-50,40181128,900-16,0001.30244684.9 %0.1 %
    88Jordan10,203,1341 %101,44011588,78010,2202.77232491.5 %0.1 %
    89Portugal10,196,709-0.29 %-29,47811191,590-6,0001.2884666.5 %0.1 %
    90Azerbaijan10,139,1770.91 %91,45912382,6581,2002.08353256.2 %0.1 %
    91Sweden10,099,2650.63 %62,88625410,34040,0001.854188.2 %0.1 %
    92Honduras9,904,6071.63 %158,49089111,890-6,8002.48722457.3 %0.1 %
    93United Arab Emirates9,890,4021.23 %119,87311883,60040,0001.423386.4 %0.1 %
    94Hungary9,660,351-0.25 %-24,32810790,5306,0001.49114371.7 %0.1 %
    95Tajikistan9,537,6452.32 %216,62768139,960-20,0003.60752227.3 %0.1 %
    96Belarus9,449,323-0.03 %-3,08847202,9108,7301.70994079.2 %0.1 %
    97Austria9,006,3980.57 %51,29610982,40965,0001.52924357.3 %0.1 %
    98Papua New Guinea8,947,0241.95 %170,91520452,860-8003.58832213.1 %0.1 %
    99Serbia8,737,371-0.4 %-34,86410087,4604,0001.46124256.2 %0.1 %
    100Israel8,655,5351.6 %136,15840021,64010,0003.0443093.2 %0.1 %
    101Switzerland8,654,6220.74 %63,25721939,51652,0001.5354374.1 %0.1 %
    102Togo8,278,7242.43 %196,35815254,390-2,0004.35151943.3 %0.1 %
    103Sierra Leone7,976,9832.1 %163,76811172,180-4,2004.3191943.3 %0.1 %
    104Hong Kong7,496,9810.82 %60,8277,1401,05029,3081.326245N.A.0.1 %
    105Laos7,275,5601.48 %106,10532230,800-14,7042.72435.7 %0.1 %
    106Paraguay7,132,5381.25 %87,90218397,300-16,5562.44552661.6 %0.1 %
    107Bulgaria6,948,445-0.74 %-51,67464108,560-4,8001.55844575.6 %0.1 %
    108Libya6,871,2921.38 %93,84041,759,540-1,9992.252978.2 %0.1 %
    109Lebanon6,825,445-0.44 %-30,26866710,230-30,0122.093078.4 %0.1 %
    110Nicaragua6,624,5541.21 %79,05255120,340-21,2722.422657.2 %0.1 %
    111Kyrgyzstan6,524,1951.69 %108,34534191,800-4,00032635.6 %0.1 %
    112El Salvador6,486,2050.51 %32,65231320,720-40,5392.05292873.4 %0.1 %
    113Turkmenistan6,031,2001.5 %89,11113469,930-5,0002.7852752.5 %0.1 %
    114Singapore5,850,3420.79 %46,0058,35870027,0281.20942N.A.0.1 %
    115Denmark5,792,2020.35 %20,32613742,43015,2001.76214288.2 %0.1 %
    116Finland5,540,7200.15 %8,56418303,89014,0001.534386.1 %0.1 %
    117Congo5,518,0872.56 %137,57916341,500-4,0004.451969.9 %0.1 %
    118Slovakia5,459,6420.05 %2,62911448,0881,4851.5024153.7 %0.1 %
    119Norway5,421,2410.79 %42,38415365,26828,0001.684083.4 %0.1 %
    120Oman5,106,6262.65 %131,64016309,50087,4002.933187 %0.1 %
    121State of Palestine5,101,4142.41 %119,9948476,020-10,5633.66772180 %0.1 %
    122Costa Rica5,094,1180.92 %46,55710051,0604,2001.76393380 %0.1 %
    123Liberia5,057,6812.44 %120,3075396,320-5,0004.351952.6 %0.1 %
    124Ireland4,937,7861.13 %55,2917268,89023,6041.84093863 %0.1 %
    125Central African Republic4,829,7671.78 %84,5828622,980-40,0004.75411843 %0.1 %
    126New Zealand4,822,2330.82 %39,17018263,31014,8811.93886.9 %0.1 %
    127Mauritania4,649,6582.74 %123,96251,030,7005,0004.5852056.9 %0.1 %
    128Panama4,314,7671.61 %68,3285874,34011,2002.46883068 %0.1 %
    129Kuwait4,270,5711.51 %63,48824017,82039,5202.137N.A.0.1 %
    130Croatia4,105,267-0.61 %-25,0377355,960-8,0011.44614457.7 %0.1 %
    131Moldova4,033,963-0.23 %-9,30012332,850-1,3871.25523842.7 %0.1 %
    132Georgia3,989,167-0.19 %-7,5985769,490-10,0002.06153858.1 %0.1 %
    133Eritrea3,546,4211.41 %49,30435101,000-39,8584.11963.3 %0 %
    134Uruguay3,473,7300.35 %11,99620175,020-3,0001.983696.1 %0 %
    135Bosnia and Herzegovina3,280,819-0.61 %-20,1816451,000-21,5851.274352.3 %0 %
    136Mongolia3,278,2901.65 %53,12321,553,560-8522.90232867.2 %0 %
    137Armenia2,963,2430.19 %5,51210428,470-4,9981.75593562.8 %0 %
    138Jamaica2,961,1670.44 %12,88827310,830-11,3321.9913155.4 %0 %
    139Qatar2,881,0531.73 %48,98624811,61040,0001.88053296.2 %0 %
    140Albania2,877,797-0.11 %-3,12010527,400-14,0001.623663.5 %0 %
    141Puerto Rico2,860,853-2.47 %-72,5553238,870-97,9861.2244N.A.0 %
    142Lithuania2,722,289-1.35 %-37,3384362,674-32,7801.66984571.3 %0 %
    143Namibia2,540,9051.86 %46,3753823,290-4,8063.41532255.2 %0 %
    144Gambia2,416,6682.94 %68,96223910,120-3,0875.251859.4 %0 %
    145Botswana2,351,6272.08 %47,9304566,7303,0002.89442472.8 %0 %
    146Gabon2,225,7342.45 %53,1559257,6703,26042387.1 %0 %
    147Lesotho2,142,2490.8 %16,9817130,360-10,0473.16412431.5 %0 %
    148North Macedonia2,083,374-0 %-858325,220-1,0001.53958.6 %0 %
    149Slovenia2,078,9380.01 %28410320,1402,0001.64555.2 %0 %
    150Guinea-Bissau1,968,0012.45 %47,0797028,120-1,3994.511944.9 %0 %
    151Latvia1,886,198-1.08 %-20,5453062,200-14,8371.71674468.6 %0 %
    152Bahrain1,701,5753.68 %60,4032,23976047,8001.99823289.3 %0 %
    153Equatorial Guinea1,402,9853.47 %46,9995028,05016,0004.55432273.3 %0 %
    154Trinidad and Tobago1,399,4880.32 %4,5152735,130-8001.72993652.4 %0 %
    155Estonia1,326,5350.07 %8873142,3903,9111.58784267.9 %0 %
    156Timor-Leste1,318,4451.96 %25,3268914,870-5,3854.12132.8 %0 %
    157Mauritius1,271,7680.17 %2,1006262,03001.38853740.8 %0 %
    158Cyprus1,207,3590.73 %8,7841319,2405,0001.33753766.8 %0 %
    159Eswatini1,160,1641.05 %12,0346717,200-8,3533.02572130 %0 %
    160Djibouti988,0001.48 %14,4404323,1809002.75772779 %0 %
    161Fiji896,4450.73 %6,4924918,270-6,2022.78742859.1 %0 %
    162Réunion895,3120.72 %6,3853582,500-1,2562.27353699.8 %0 %
    163Comoros869,6012.2 %18,7154671,861-2,0004.23652029.4 %0 %
    164Guyana786,5520.48 %3,7864196,850-6,0002.47282726.9 %0 %
    165Bhutan771,6081.12 %8,5162038,11732022845.8 %0 %
    166Solomon Islands686,8842.55 %17,0612527,990-1,6004.4352023.2 %0 %
    167Macao649,3351.39 %8,89021,645305,0001.239N.A.0 %
    168Montenegro628,0660.01 %794713,450-4801.75063967.6 %0 %
    169Luxembourg625,9781.66 %10,2492422,5909,7411.454088.2 %0 %
    170Western Sahara597,3392.55 %14,8762266,0005,5822.41492886.8 %0 %
    171Suriname586,6320.9 %5,2604156,000-1,0002.42982965.1 %0 %
    172Cabo Verde555,9871.1 %6,0521384,030-1,3422.28852868 %0 %
    173Micronesia548,9141 %5,428784700-2,9572.8580001892768.2 %0 %
    174Maldives540,5441.81 %9,5911,80230011,3701.883034.5 %0 %
    175Malta441,5430.27 %1,1711,3803209001.454393.2 %0 %
    176Brunei 437,4790.97 %4,194835,27001.84823279.5 %0 %
    177Guadeloupe400,1240.02 %682371,690-1,4402.1744N.A.0 %
    178Belize397,6281.86 %7,2751722,8101,2002.322546.1 %0 %
    179Bahamas393,2440.97 %3,7623910,0101,0001.763286.1 %0 %
    180Martinique375,265-0.08 %-2893541,060-9601.884791.6 %0 %
    181Iceland341,2430.65 %2,2123100,2503801.773794.4 %0 %
    182Vanuatu307,1452.42 %7,2632512,1901203.82124.4 %0 %
    183French Guiana298,6822.7 %7,850482,2001,2003.362587.3 %0 %
    184Barbados287,3750.12 %350668430-791.624031.2 %0 %
    185New Caledonia285,4980.97 %2,7481618,2805021.973471.9 %0 %
    186French Polynesia280,9080.58 %1,621773,660-1,0001.953464.1 %0 %
    187Mayotte272,8152.5 %6,66572837503.72892045.8 %0 %
    188Sao Tome & Principe219,1591.91 %4,103228960-1,6804.351974 %0 %
    189Samoa198,4140.67 %1,317702,830-2,8033.90292218 %0 %
    190Saint Lucia183,6270.46 %83730161001.44423418.6 %0 %
    191Channel Islands173,8630.93 %1,6049151901,3511.5024329.8 %0 %
    192Guam168,7750.89 %1,481313540-5062.31933194.9 %0 %
    193Curaçao164,0930.41 %6693704445151.764288.7 %0 %
    194Kiribati119,4491.57 %1,843147810-8003.58362357 %0 %
    195Grenada112,5230.46 %520331340-2002.07323235.5 %0 %
    196St. Vincent & Grenadines110,9400.32 %351284390-2001.90193352.9 %0 %
    197Aruba106,7660.43 %4525931802011.94143.6 %0 %
    198Tonga105,6951.15 %1,201147720-8003.57632224.3 %0 %
    199U.S. Virgin Islands104,425-0.15 %-153298350-4512.04584396.3 %0 %
    200Seychelles98,3470.62 %608214460-2002.463456.2 %0 %
    201Antigua and Barbuda97,9290.84 %811223440023426.2 %0 %
    202Isle of Man85,0330.53 %449149570N.A.N.A.53.4 %0 %
    203Andorra77,2650.16 %123164470N.A.N.A.87.8 %0 %
    204Dominica71,9860.25 %17896750N.A.N.A.74.1 %0 %
    205Cayman Islands65,7221.19 %774274240N.A.N.A.97.2 %0 %
    206Bermuda62,278-0.36 %-2281,24650N.A.N.A.97.4 %0 %
    207Marshall Islands59,1900.68 %399329180N.A.N.A.70 %0 %
    208Northern Mariana Islands57,5590.6 %343125460N.A.N.A.88.3 %0 %
    209Greenland56,7700.17 %980410,450N.A.N.A.87.3 %0 %
    210American Samoa55,191-0.22 %-121276200N.A.N.A.88.1 %0 %
    211Saint Kitts & Nevis53,1990.71 %376205260N.A.N.A.32.9 %0 %
    212Faeroe Islands48,8630.38 %185351,396N.A.N.A.43.3 %0 %
    213Sint Maarten42,8761.15 %4881,26134N.A.N.A.96.5 %0 %
    214Monaco39,2420.71 %27826,3371N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %
    215Turks and Caicos38,7171.38 %52641950N.A.N.A.89.3 %0 %
    216Saint Martin38,6661.75 %66473053N.A.N.A.0 %0 %
    217Liechtenstein38,1280.29 %109238160N.A.N.A.14.6 %0 %
    218San Marino33,9310.21 %7156660N.A.N.A.97.1 %0 %
    219Gibraltar33,691-0.03 %-103,36910N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %
    220British Virgin Islands30,2310.67 %201202150N.A.N.A.52.4 %0 %
    221Caribbean Netherlands26,2230.94 %24480328N.A.N.A.75 %0 %
    222Palau18,0940.48 %8639460N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %
    223Cook Islands17,5640.09 %1673240N.A.N.A.75.3 %0 %
    224Anguilla15,0030.9 %13416790N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %
    225Tuvalu11,7921.25 %14639330N.A.N.A.62.4 %0 %
    226Wallis & Futuna11,239-1.69 %-19380140N.A.N.A.0 %0 %
    227Nauru10,8240.63 %6854120N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %
    228Saint Barthelemy9,8770.3 %3047021N.A.N.A.0 %0 %
    229Saint Helena6,0770.3 %1816390N.A.N.A.27.2 %0 %
    230Saint Pierre & Miquelon5,794-0.48 %-2825230N.A.N.A.99.8 %0 %
    231Montserrat4,9920.06 %350100N.A.N.A.9.6 %0 %
    232Falkland Islands3,4803.05 %103012,170N.A.N.A.66 %0 %
    233Niue1,6260.68 %116260N.A.N.A.46.4 %0 %
    234Tokelau1,3571.27 %1713610N.A.N.A.0 %0 %
    235Holy See8010.25 %22,0030N.A.N.A.N.A.0 %

    How many people have ever lived on earth?

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    It was written during the 1970s that 75% of the people who had ever been born were alive at that moment. This was grossly false.

    Assuming that we start counting from about 50,000 B.C., the time when modern Homo sapiens appeared on the earth (and not from 700,000 B.C. when the ancestors of Homo sapiens appeared, or several million years ago when hominids were present), taking into account that all population data are a rough estimate, and assuming a constant growth rate applied to each period up to modern times, it has been estimated that a total of approximately 106 billion people have been born since the dawn of the human species, making the population currently alive roughly 6% of all people who have ever lived on planet Earth.

    Others have estimated the number of human beings who have ever lived to be anywhere from 45 billion to 125 billion, with most estimates falling into the range of 90 to 110 billion humans.

    World Population clock: sources and methodology

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    The world population counter displayed on Worldometer takes into consideration data from two major sources: the United Nations and the U.S. Census Bureau.

    1. The United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs every two years calculates, updates, and publishes estimates of total population in its World Population Prospects series. These population estimates and projections provide the standard and consistent set of population figures that are used throughout the United Nations system.

      The World Population Prospect: the 2019 Revision provides the most recent data available (released in June of 2019). Estimates and projected world population and country specific populations are given from 1950 through 2100 and are released every two years. Worldometer, as it is common practice, utilizes the medium fertility estimates.

      Data underlying the population estimates are national and sub national census data and data on births, deaths, and migrants available from national sources and publications, as well as from questionnaires. For all countries, census and registration data are evaluated and, if necessary, adjusted for incompleteness by the Population Division as part of its preparations of the official United Nations population estimates and projections.

    2. The International Programs Center at the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division also develops estimates and projections based on analysis of available data (based on census, survey, and administrative information) on population, fertility, mortality, and migration for each country or area of the world. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, world population reached 7 billion on March 12, 2012.

      For most countries adjustment of the data is necessary to correct for errors, omissions, and inconsistencies in the data. Finally, since most recent data for a single country is often at least two years old, the current world population figure is necessarily a projection of past data based on assumed trends. As new data become available, assumptions and data are reevaluated and past conclusions and current figures may be modified.

      For information about how these estimates and projections are made by the U.S. Census Bureau, see the Population Estimates and Projections Methodology.

    Why Worldometer clocks are the most accurate

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    The above world population clock is based on the latest estimates released in June of 2019 by the United Nations and will show the same number wherever you are in the world and whatever time you set on your PC. Worldometer is the only website to show live counters that are based on U.N. data and that do not follow the user's PC clock.

    Visitors around the world visiting a PC clock based counter, see different numbers depending on where they are located, and in the past have seen other world population clocks - such as the one hosted on a United Nations website and on National Geographic - reaching 7 billion whenever their locally set PC clocks reached 4:21:10 AM on October 31, 2011.

    Obviously, the UN data is based on estimates and can't be 100% accurate, so in all honesty nobody can possibly say with any degree of certainty on which day world population reached 7 billion (or any other exact number), let alone at what time. But once an estimate is made (based on the best data and analysis available), the world population clock should be showing the same number at any given time anywhere around the world.

    Sours: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/
    World Population in 2021 -Total population of world 2021-World Population - current world population

    World population

    Total number of living humans on Earth

    Not to be confused with Demographics of the world.

    High, medium, and low projections of the future human world population

    In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7,800,000,000 people as of March 2020[update].[1][2] It took over 2 million years of human prehistory and history for the world's population to reach 1 billion[3] and only 200 years more to grow to 7 billion.[4]

    The world population has experienced continuous growth following the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the end of the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.[5] The highest global population growth rates, with increases of over 1.8% per year, occurred between 1955 and 1975 – peaking at 2.1% between 1965 and 1970.[6] The growth rate declined to 1.2% between 2010 and 2015 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century.[6] The global population is still increasing, but there is significant uncertainty about its long-term trajectory due to changing rates of fertility and mortality.[7] The UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs projects between 9–10 billion people by 2050, and gives an 80% confidence interval of 10–12 billion by the end of the 21st century.[8] Other demographers predict that world population will begin to decline in the second half of the 21st century.[9] A popular estimate for the sustainable population of earth is 8 billion people as of 2012. With the world population at 7.8 billion people as of March 2020 and typical projections of population growth, Earth will be in a state of human overpopulation by 2050 or sooner.

    Birth rates were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million,[10] and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially constant at a level of 135 million,[11] while the mortality rate numbered 56 million per year and were expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.[12] The median age of the world's population was estimated to be 30.4 years in 2018.[13]

    Population by region

    World population (millions, UN estimates)[14]
    # Top ten most populous countries2000 2015 2030[A]
    1ChinaChina[B]1,2701,3761,416
    2IndiaIndia1,0531,3111,528
    3United StatesUnited States283322356
    4IndonesiaIndonesia212258295
    5PakistanPakistan136208245
    6BrazilBrazil176206228
    7NigeriaNigeria123182263
    8BangladeshBangladesh131161186
    9RussiaRussia146146149
    10MexicoMexico103127148
    World total6,1277,3498,501
    Notes:

    Six of the Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.64 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population. The world's two most populated countries, China and India, together constitute about 36% of the world's population. Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1.34 billion people, or 17% of the world's population. Europe's 747 million people make up 10% of the world's population as of 2020, while the Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 653 million (8%). North America, primarily consisting of the United States and Canada, has a population of around 368 million (5%), and Oceania, the least populated region, has about 42 million inhabitants (0.5%).[15]Antarctica only has a very small, fluctuating population of about 1200 people based mainly in polar science stations.[16]

    Population by continent

    Continent Density
    (inhabitants/km2)
    Population
    (millions)
    Most populous country Most populous city (metropolitan area)
    Asia 104.1 4,641 1,439,323,000[note 1] China37,393,000/13,929,000 – JapanGreater Tokyo Area/Tokyo Metropolis
    Africa 44.4 1,340 0206,139,000 –  Nigeria20,900,000 – EgyptCairo[17]
    Europe 73.4 747 0145,934,000 –  Russia;
    approx. 110 million in Europe
    16,855,000/12,537,000 – RussiaMoscow metropolitan area/Moscow[18]
    Latin America24.1 653 0212,559,000 –  Brazil22,043,000/12,176,000 – BrazilSão Paulo Metro Area/São Paulo City
    Northern America[note 2]14.9 368 0331,002,000 –  United States23,724,000/8,323,000 – United StatesNew York metropolitan area/New York City
    Oceania5 42 0025,499,000 –  Australia4,925,000 – AustraliaSydney
    Antarctica~0 0.004[16]N/A[note 3]1,258 – McMurdo Station

    History

    Further information: Estimates of historical world population and Human history

    Estimates of world population by their nature are an aspect of modernity, possible only since the Age of Discovery. Early estimates for the population of the world[19] date to the 17th century: William Petty in 1682 estimated world population at 320 million (modern estimates ranging close to twice this number); by the late 18th century, estimates ranged close to one billion (consistent with modern estimates).[20] More refined estimates, broken down by continents, were published in the first half of the 19th century, at 600 million to 1 billion in the early 1800s and at 800 million to 1 billion in the 1840s.[21]

    It is difficult for estimates to be better than rough approximations, as even modern population estimates are fraught with uncertainties on the order of 3% to 5%.[22]

    Ancient and post-classical history

    Main articles: Classical demography and Medieval demography

    Estimates of the population of the world at the time agriculture emerged in around 10,000 BC have ranged between 1 million and 15 million.[23][24] Even earlier, genetic evidence suggests humans may have gone through a population bottleneck of between 1,000 and 10,000 people about 70,000 BC, according to the Toba catastrophe theory. By contrast, it is estimated that around 50–60 million people lived in the combined eastern and western Roman Empire in the 4th century AD.[25]

    The Plague of Justinian, which first emerged during the reign of the Roman emperorJustinian, caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between the 6th and 8th centuries AD.[26] The population of Europe was more than 70 million in 1340.[27] The Black Deathpandemic of the 14th century may have reduced the world's population from an estimated 450 million in 1340 to between 350 and 375 million in 1400;[28] it took 200 years for population figures to recover.[29] The population of China decreased from 123 million in 1200 to 65 million in 1393,[30] presumably from a combination of Mongol invasions, famine, and plague.[31]

    Starting in AD 2, the Han Dynasty of ancient China kept consistent family registers in order to properly assess the poll taxes and labor service duties of each household.[32] In that year, the population of Western Han was recorded as 57,671,400 individuals in 12,366,470 households, decreasing to 47,566,772 individuals in 9,348,227 households by AD 146, towards the End of the Han Dynasty.[32] At the founding of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, China's population was reported to be close to 60 million; toward the end of the dynasty in 1644, it may have approached 150 million.[33] England's population reached an estimated 5.6 million in 1650, up from an estimated 2.6 million in 1500.[34] New crops that were brought to Asia and Europe from the Americas by Portuguese and Spanish colonists in the 16th century are believed to have contributed to population growth.[35][36][37] Since their introduction to Africa by Portuguese traders in the 16th century,[38]maize and cassava have similarly replaced traditional African crops as the most important staple food crops grown on the continent.[39]

    The pre-Columbian population of the Americas is uncertain; historian David Henige called it "the most unanswerable question in the world."[40] By the end of the 20th century, scholarly consensus favored an estimate of roughly 55 million people, but numbers from various sources have ranged from 10 million to 100 million.[41] Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence.[42] According to the most extreme scholarly claims, as many as 90% of the Native American population of the New World died of Old World diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza.[43] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no such immunity.[44]

    Modern history

    Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006. Only 3% of the world's population lived in urban areas in 1800; this proportion had risen to 47% by 2000, and reached 50.5% by 2010.[45]By 2050, the proportion may reach 70%.[46]

    During the European Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.[47] The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829.[48][49] Between 1700 and 1900, Europe's population increased from about 100 million to over 400 million.[50] Altogether, the areas populated by people of European descent comprised 36% of the world's population in 1900.[51]

    Population growth in the West became more rapid after the introduction of vaccination and other improvements in medicine and sanitation.[52] Improved material conditions led to the population of Britain increasing from 10 million to 40 million in the 19th century.[53] The population of the United Kingdom reached 60 million in 2006.[54] The United States saw its population grow from around 5.3 million in 1800 to 106 million in 1920, exceeding 307 million in 2010.[55]

    The first half of the 20th century in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union was marked by a succession of major wars, famines and other disasters which caused large-scale population losses (approximately 60 million excess deaths).[56][57] After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's population declined significantly – from 150 million in 1991 to 143 million in 2012[58] – but by 2013 this decline appeared to have halted.[59]

    Many countries in the developing world have experienced extremely rapid population growth since the early 20th century, due to economic development and improvements in public health. China's population rose from approximately 430 million in 1850 to 580 million in 1953,[60] and now stands at over 1.3 billion. The population of the Indian subcontinent, which was about 125 million in 1750, increased to 389 million in 1941;[61] today, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are collectively home to about 1.63 billion people.[62]Java had about 5 million inhabitants in 1815; its present-day successor, Indonesia, now has a population of over 140 million.[63] In just one hundred years, the population of Brazil decupled (x10), from about 17 million in 1900, or about 1% of the world population in that year, to about 176 million in 2000, or almost 3% of the global population in the very early 21st century. Mexico's population grew from 13.6 million in 1900 to about 112 million in 2010.[64][65] Between the 1920s and 2000s, Kenya's population grew from 2.9 million to 37 million.[66]

    Milestones by the billions

    Main article: World population milestones

    World population milestones in billions (Worldometers estimates)
    Population 12345678910
    Year 1804192719601974198719992011202320372056
    Years elapsed 1233314131212121419

    It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804. It was another 123 years before it reached two billion in 1927, but it took only 33 years to reach three billion in 1960.[67] Thereafter, the global population reached four billion in 1974, five billion in 1987, six billion in 1999 and, according to the United States Census Bureau, seven billion in March 2012.[68] The United Nations, however, estimated that the world population reached seven billion in October 2011.[69][70][71]

    According to current projections, the global population will reach eight billion by 2024, and is likely to reach around nine billion by 2042. Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[72] Projected figures vary depending on underlying statistical assumptions and the variables used in projection calculations, especially the fertility variable. Long-range predictions to 2150 range from a population decline to 3.2 billion in the "low scenario", to "high scenarios" of 24.8 billion.[72] One extreme scenario predicted a massive increase to 256 billion by 2150, assuming the global fertility rate remained at its 1995 level of 3.04 children per woman; however, by 2010 the global fertility rate had declined to 2.52.[73][74]

    There is no estimation for the exact day or month the world's population surpassed one or two billion. The points at which it reached three and four billion were not officially noted, but the International Database of the United States Census Bureau placed them in July 1959 and April 1974 respectively. The United Nations did determine, and commemorate, the "Day of 5 Billion" on 11 July 1987, and the "Day of 6 Billion" on 12 October 1999. The Population Division of the United Nations declared the "Day of 7 Billion" to be 31 October 2011.[75][needs update]

    Global demographics

    Main article: Demographics of the world

      >80

      77.5–80

      75–77.5

      72.5–75

      70–72.5

      67.5–70

      65–67.5

      60–65

      55–60

      50–55

    2015 map showing average life expectancy by country in years. In 2015, the World Health Organization estimated the average global life expectancy as 71.4 years.[76]

    As of 2012, the global sex ratio is approximately 1.01 males to 1 female. The greater number of men is possibly due to the significant sex imbalances evident in the Indian and Chinese populations.[77][78] Approximately 26.3% of the global population is aged under 15, while 65.9% is aged 15–64 and 7.9% is aged 65 or over.[77] The median age of the world's population was estimated to be 29.7 years in 2014,[79] and is expected to rise to 37.9 years by 2050.[80]

    According to the World Health Organization, the global average life expectancy is 71.4 years as of 2015, with women living an average of 74 years and men approximately 69 years.[76] In 2010, the global fertility rate was estimated at 2.52 children per woman.[74] In June 2012, British researchers calculated the total weight of Earth's human population as approximately 287 million tonnes, with the average person weighing around 62 kilograms (137 lb).[81]

    The CIA estimated nominal 2013 gross world product at US$74.31 trillion, giving an annual global per capita figure of around US$10,500.[82] Around 1.29 billion people (18.4% of the world population) live in extreme poverty, subsisting on less than US$1.25 per day;[83] approximately 870 million people (12.3%) are undernourished.[84] 83% of the world's over-15s are considered literate.[77] In June 2014, there were around 3.03 billion global Internet users, constituting 42.3% of the world population.[85]

    The Han Chinese are the world's largest single ethnic group, constituting over 19% of the global population in 2011.[86] The world's most-spoken first languages are Mandarin Chinese (spoken by 12.4% of the world's population), Spanish (4.9%), English (4.8%), Arabic (3.3%) and Hindi (2.7%).[77] The world's largest religion is Christianity, whose adherents account for 31.4% of the global population;[87]Islam is the second-largest religion, accounting for 24.1%, and Hinduism the third, accounting for 13.8%.[77] In 2005, around 16% of the global population were reported to be non-religious.[88]

    Largest populations by country

    Further information: List of countries and dependencies by population

    A map of world population in 2019
    Countries population graph.jpeg

    10 most populous countries

    Approximately 4.45 billion people live in these ten countries, representing around 57% of the world's population as of September 2020.

    Most densely populated countries

    Further information: List of countries and dependencies by population density

    The tables below list the world's most densely populated countries, both in absolute terms and in comparison to their total populations.

    Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994. Purple and pink areas denote regions of highest population density.
    RankCountryPopulationArea
    (km2)
    Density
    (pop/km2)
    1 Singapore5,704,0007108,033
    2 Bangladesh171,510,000 143,998 1,191
    3 Lebanon6,856,00010,452656
    4 Taiwan23,604,00036,193652
    5 South Korea51,781,00099,538520
    6 Rwanda12,374,00026,338470
    7 Haiti11,578,00027,065428
    8 Netherlands17,650,000 41,526 425
    9 Israel9,410,000 22,072 426
    10 India1,383,000,000 3,287,240 421
    RankCountryPopulationArea
    (km2)
    Density
    (pop/km2)
    Population trend
    1 India1,383,000,000 3,287,240 421Growing
    2 Pakistan225,290,000 803,940 280Rapidly growing
    3 Bangladesh171,510,000 143,998 1,191Rapidly growing
    4 Japan126,010,000377,873333Declining[98]
    5 Philippines110,950,000 300,000 370Growing
    6 Vietnam96,209,000331,689290Growing
    7 United Kingdom66,436,000243,610273Growing
    8 South Korea51,781,00099,538520Steady
    9 Taiwan23,604,00036,193652Steady
    10 Sri Lanka21,803,00065,610332Growing

    Fluctuation

    Main articles: Population growth, Projections of population growth, and Population dynamics

    Estimates of population evolution in different continentsbetween 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmicand is in millions of people.

    Population size fluctuates at differing rates in differing regions. Nonetheless, population growth is the long-standing trend on all inhabited continents, as well as in most individual states. During the 20th century, the global population saw its greatest increase in known history, rising from about 1.6 billion in 1900 to over 6 billion in 2000. A number of factors contributed to this increase, including the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved sanitation and medical advances, and a massive increase in agricultural productivity attributed to the Green Revolution.[99][100][101]

    In 2000, the United Nations estimated that the world's population was growing at an annual rate of 1.1% (equivalent to around 75 million people),[102] down from a peak of 88 million per year in 1989. By 2000, there were approximately ten times as many people on Earth as there had been in 1700. Globally, the population growth rate has been steadily declining from its peak of 2.2% in 1963, but growth remains high in Latin America, the Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa.[103]

    During the 2010s, Japan and some countries in Europe began to encounter negative population growth (i.e. a net decrease in population over time), due to sub-replacement fertility rates.[98]

    In 2006, the United Nations stated that the rate of population growth was visibly diminishing due to the ongoing global demographic transition. If this trend continues, the rate of growth may diminish to zero by 2050, concurrent with a world population plateau of 9.2 billion.[104] However, this is only one of many estimates published by the UN; in 2009, UN population projections for 2050 ranged between around 8 billion and 10.5 billion.[105] An alternative scenario is given by the statistician Jorgen Randers, who argues that traditional projections insufficiently take into account the downward impact of global urbanization on fertility. Randers' "most likely scenario" reveals a peak in the world population in the early 2040s at about 8.1 billion people, followed by decline.[106] Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, states that "there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue."[107]

    • Estimated world population figures, 10,000 BC–AD 2000 (in log y scale)

    • World population figures, 1950–2017

    Annual population growth

    Year Population Yearly growth Density
    (pop/km2)
    Urban population
    % Number Number %
    1951 2,584,034,261 1.88% 47,603,112 17 775,067,697 30%
    1952 2,630,861,562 1.81% 46,827,301 18 799,282,533 30%
    1953 2,677,608,960 1.78% 46,747,398 18 824,289,989 31%
    1954 2,724,846,741 1.76% 47,237,781 18 850,179,106 31%
    1955 2,773,019,936 1.77% 48,173,195 19 877,008,842 32%
    1956 2,822,443,282 1.78% 49,423,346 19 904,685,164 32%
    1957 2,873,306,090 1.80% 50,862,808 19 933,113,168 32%
    1958 2,925,686,705 1.82% 52,380,615 20 962,537,113 33%
    1959 2,979,576,185 1.84% 53,889,480 20 992,820,546 33%
    1960 3,034,949,748 1.86% 55,373,563 20 1,023,845,517 34%
    1961 3,091,843,507 1.87% 56,893,759 21 1,055,435,648 34%
    1962 3,150,420,795 1.89% 58,577,288 21 1,088,376,703 35%
    1963 3,211,001,009 1.92% 60,580,214 22 1,122,561,940 35%
    1964 3,273,978,338 1.96% 62,977,329 22 1,157,813,355 35%
    1965 3,339,583,597 2.00% 65,605,259 22 1,188,469,224 36%
    1966 3,407,922,630 2.05% 68,339,033 23 1,219,993,032 36%
    1967 3,478,769,962 2.08% 70,847,332 23 1,252,566,565 36%
    1968 3,551,599,127 2.09% 72,829,165 24 1,285,933,432 36%
    1969 3,625,680,627 2.09% 74,081,500 24 1,319,833,474 36%
    1970 3,700,437,046 2.06% 74,756,419 25 1,354,215,496 37%
    1971 3,775,759,617 2.04% 75,322,571 25 1,388,834,099 37%
    1972 3,851,650,245 2.01% 75,890,628 26 1,424,734,781 37%
    1973 3,927,780,238 1.98% 76,129,993 26 1,462,178,370 37%
    1974 4,003,794,172 1.94% 76,013,934 27 1,501,134,655 37%
    1975 4,079,480,606 1.89% 75,686,434 27 1,538,624,994 38%
    1976 4,154,666,864 1.84% 75,186,258 28 1,577,376,141 38%
    1977 4,229,506,060 1.80% 74,839,196 28 1,616,419,308 38%
    1978 4,304,533,501 1.77% 75,027,441 29 1,659,306,117 39%
    1979 4,380,506,100 1.76% 75,972,599 29 1,706,021,638 39%
    1980 4,458,003,514 1.77% 77,497,414 30 1,754,201,029 39%
    1981 4,536,996,762 1.77% 78,993,248 30 1,804,215,203 40%
    1982 4,617,386,542 1.77% 80,389,780 31 1,854,134,229 40%
    1983 4,699,569,304 1.78% 82,182,762 32 1,903,822,436 41%
    1984 4,784,011,621 1.80% 84,442,317 32 1,955,106,433 41%
    1985 4,870,921,740 1.82% 86,910,119 33 2,007,939,063 41%
    1986 4,960,567,912 1.84% 89,646,172 33 2,062,604,394 42%
    1987 5,052,522,147 1.85% 91,954,235 34 2,118,882,551 42%
    1988 5,145,426,008 1.84% 92,903,861 35 2,176,126,537 42%
    1989 5,237,441,558 1.79% 92,015,550 35 2,233,140,502 43%
    1990 5,327,231,061 1.71% 89,789,503 36 2,290,228,096 43%
    1991 5,414,289,444 1.63% 87,058,383 36 2,347,462,336 43%
    1992 5,498,919,809 1.56% 84,630,365 37 2,404,337,297 44%
    1993 5,581,597,546 1.50% 82,677,737 37 2,461,223,528 44%
    1994 5,663,150,427 1.46% 81,552,881 38 2,518,254,111 44%
    1995 5,744,212,979 1.43% 81,062,552 39 2,575,505,235 45%
    1996 5,824,891,951 1.40% 80,678,972 39 2,632,941,583 45%
    1997 5,905,045,788 1.38% 80,153,837 40 2,690,813,541 46%
    1998 5,984,793,942 1.35% 79,748,154 40 2,749,213,598 46%
    1999 6,064,239,055 1.33% 79,445,113 41 2,808,231,655 46%
    2000 6,143,494,000 1.31% 79,255,000 41 2,868,308,000 46%
    2001 6,222,627,000 1.29% 79,133,000 42 2,933,079,000 47%
    2002 6,301,773,000 1.27% 79,147,000 42 3,001,808,000 47%
    2003 6,381,185,000 1.26% 79,412,000 43 3,071,744,000 48%
    2004 6,461,159,000 1.25% 79,974,000 43 3,143,045,000 48%
    2005 6,541,907,000 1.25% 80,748,000 44 3,215,906,000 49%
    2006 6,623,518,000 1.25% 81,611,000 44 3,289,446,000 50%
    2007 6,705,947,000 1.24% 82,429,000 45 3,363,610,000 50%
    2008 6,789,089,000 1.24% 83,142,000 46 3,439,719,000 50%
    2009 6,872,767,000 1.23% 83,678,000 47 3,516,830,000 51%
    2010 6,956,824,000 1.22% 84,057,000 47 3,594,868,000 51%
    2011 7,041,194,000 1.21% 84,371,000 47 3,671,424,000 52%
    2012 7,125,828,000 1.20% 84,634,000 48 3,747,843,000 52%
    2013 7,210,582,000 1.19% 84,754,000 48 3,824,990,000 53%
    2014 7,295,291,000 1.17% 84,709,000 49 3,902,832,000 53%
    2015 7,379,797,000 1.16% 84,506,000 50 3,981,498,000 54%
    2016 7,464,022,000 1.14% 84,225,000 50 4,060,653,000 54%
    2017 7,547,859,000 1.12% 83,837,000 51 4,140,189,000 55%
    2018 7,631,091,000 1.10% 83,232,000 51 4,219,817,000 55%
    2019 7,713,468,000 1.08% 82,377,000 52 4,299,439,000 56%
    2020 7,795,000,000 1.05% 81,331,000 52 4,378,900,000 56%

    Population growth by region

    Main article: Population growth

    Further information: Total fertility rate and Birth rate

    The table below shows historical and predicted regional population figures in millions.[109][110][111] The availability of historical population figures varies by region.

    Region15001600170017501800185019001950199920082010201220502150
    World 5856607107919781,2621,6502,5216,0086,7076,8967,0529,7259,746
    Africa 861141061061071111332217839731,0221,0522,4782,308
    Asia 2823504115026358099471,4023,7004,0544,1644,2505,2675,561
    Europe 168170178190203276408547675732738740734517
    Latin America[Note 1]40201016243874167508577590603784912
    Northern America[Note 1]632272682172312337345351433398
    Oceania 333222613303437385751
    Region15001600170017501800185019001950199920082010201220502150
    Africa 14.717.314.913.410.98.88.18.813.014.514.815.225.523.7
    Asia 48.253.057.963.564.964.157.455.661.660.460.460.354.257.1
    Europe 28.725.825.120.620.821.924.721.711.210.910.710.57.65.3
    Latin America[Note 1]6.83.01.42.02.53.04.56.68.58.68.68.68.19.4
    Northern America[Note 1]1.00.50.30.30.72.15.06.85.25.05.05.04.54.1
    Oceania 0.50.50.40.30.20.20.40.50.50.50.50.50.60.5

    Past population

    Main article: Estimates of historical world population

    The following table gives estimates, in millions, of population in the past. The data for 1750 to 1900 are from the UN report "The World at Six Billion"[115] whereas the data from 1950 to 2015 are from a UN data sheet.[14]

    Year World Africa Asia Europe Latin America
    & Carib.[Note 1]
    North America
    [Note 1]
    Oceania Notes
    70,000 BC < 0.015 0 0 [116]
    10,000 BC 4 [117]
    8000 BC 5
    6500 BC 5
    5000 BC 5
    4000 BC 7
    3000 BC 14
    2000 BC 27
    1000 BC 50 7 33 9 [citation needed]
    500 BC 100 14 66 16
    AD 1 200 23 141 28
    1000 400 70 269 50 8 1 2
    1500 458 86 243 84 39 3 3
    1600 580 114 339 111 10 3 3
    1700 682 106 436 125 10 2 3
    1750 791 106 502 163 16 2 2
    1800 1,000 107 656 203 24 7 3
    1850 1,262 111 809 276 38 26 2
    1900 1,650 133 947 408 74 82 6
    1950 2,525 229 1,394 549 169 172 12.7 [118]
    1955 2,758 254 1,534 577 193 187 14.2
    1960 3,018 285 1,687 606 221 204 15.8
    1965 3,322 322 1,875 635 254 219 17.5
    1970 3,682 366 2,120 657 288 231 19.7
    1975 4,061 416 2,378 677 326 242 21.5
    1980 4,440 478 2,626 694 365 254 23.0
    1985 4,853 550 2,897 708 406 267 24.9
    1990 5,310 632 3,202 721 447 281 27.0
    1995 5,735 720 3,475 728 487 296 29.1
    2000 6,127 814 3,714 726 527 314 31.1
    2005 6,520 920 3,945 729 564 329 33.4
    2010 6,930 1,044 4,170 735 600 344 36.4
    2015 7,349 1,186 4,393 738 634 358 39.3

    Using the above figures, the change in population from 2010 to 2015 was:

    • World: +420 million
    • Africa: +142 million
    • Asia: +223 million
    • Europe: +3 million
    • Latin America and Caribbean: +35 million
    • Northern America: +14 million
    • Oceania: +2.9 million
    1. ^ abcdefNorth America is here defined to include the northernmost countries and territories of North America: Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. Latin America & Carib. comprises Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America.

    Projections

    Main article: Projections of population growth

    Long-term global population growth is difficult to predict. The United Nations and the US Census Bureau both give different estimates – according to the UN, the world population reached seven billion in late 2011,[109] while the USCB asserted that this occurred in March 2012.[119] The UN has issued multiple projections of future world population, based on different assumptions. From 2000 to 2005, the UN consistently revised these projections downward, until the 2006 revision, issued on 14 March 2007, revised the 2050 mid-range estimate upwards by 273 million.

    Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or below replacement levels) and developing countries (where birth rates typically remain high). Different ethnicities also display varying birth rates. Death rates can change rapidly due to disease epidemics, wars and other mass catastrophes, or advances in medicine.

    2012 United Nations projections show a continued increase in population in the near future with a steady decline in population growth rate; the global population is expected to reach between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050.[120][121] 2003 UN Population Division population projections for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and 24.8 billion.[73] One of many independent mathematical models supports the lower estimate,[122] while a 2014 estimate forecasts between 9.3 and 12.6 billion in 2100, and continued growth thereafter.[123][124] The 2019 Revision of the UN estimates gives the "medium variant" population as; nearly 8.6 billion in 2030, about 9.7 billion in 2050 and about 10.9 billion in 2100.[125] In December 2019, the German Foundation for World Population projected that the global population will reach 8 billion by 2023 as it increases by 156 every minute.[126] In a modelled future projection by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation the global population was projected to peak in 2064 at 9.73 billion people and decline to 8.79 billion in 2100.[127] Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world population growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment,[128] global food supplies, and energy resources.[129][130][131]

    Year UN est.
    (millions)
    DifferenceUSCB est.
    (millions)
    Difference
    2005 6,542 6,473
    2010 6,957 415 6,866 393
    2015 7,380 423 7,256 390
    2020 7,795 415 7,643 380
    2025 8,184 390 8,007 363
    2030 8,549 364 8,341 334
    2035 8,888 339 8,646 306
    2040 9,199 311 8,926 280
    2045 9,482 283 9,180 254
    2050 9,735 253 9,408 228
    Year World Asia Africa Europe Latin America/Caribbean Northern America Oceania
    2000 6,144 3,741 (60.9%) 811 (13.2%) 726 (11.8%) 522 (8.5%) 312 (5.1%) 31 (0.5%)
    2005 6,542 3,978 (60.8%) 916 (14.0%) 729 (11.2%) 558 (8.5%) 327 (5.0%) 34 (0.5%)
    2010 6,957 4,210 (60.5%) 1,039 (14.9%) 736 (10.6%) 591 (8.5%) 343 (4.9%) 37 (0.5%)
    2015 7,380 4,434 (60.1%) 1,182 (16.0%) 743 (10.1%) 624 (8.5%) 357 (4.8%) 40 (0.5%)
    2020 7,795 4,641 (59.5%) 1,341 (17.2%) 748 (9.6%) 654 (8.4%) 369 (4.7%) 43 (0.6%)
    2025 8,184 4,823 (58.9%) 1,509 (18.4%) 746 (9.1%) 682 (8.3%) 380 (4.6%) 45 (0.6%)
    2030 8,549 4,974 (58.2%) 1,688 (19.8%) 741 (8.7%) 706 (8.3%) 391 (4.6%) 48 (0.6%)
    2035 8,888 5,096 (57.3%) 1,878 (21.1%) 735 (8.3%) 726 (8.2%) 401 (4.5%) 50 (0.6%)
    2040 9,199 5,189 (56.4%) 2,077 (22.6%) 728 (7.9%) 742 (8.1%) 410 (4.5%) 53 (0.6%)
    2045 9,482 5,253 (55.4%) 2,282 (24.1%) 720 (7.6%) 754 (8.0%) 418 (4.4%) 55 (0.6%)
    2050 9,735 5,290 (54.3%) 2,489 (25.6%) 711 (7.3%) 762 (7.8%) 425 (4.4%) 57 (0.6%)
    2055 9,958 5,302 (53.2%) 2,698 (27.1%) 700 (7.0%) 767 (7.7%) 432 (4.3%) 60 (0.6%)
    2060 10,152 5,289 (52.1%) 2,905 (28.6%) 689 (6.8%) 768 (7.6%) 439 (4.3%) 62 (0.6%)
    2065 10,318 5,256 (51.0%) 3,109 (30.1%) 677 (6.6%) 765 (7.4%) 447 (4.3%) 64 (0.6%)
    2070 10,459 5,207 (49.8%) 3,308 (31.6%) 667 (6.4%) 759 (7.3%) 454 (4.3%) 66 (0.6%)
    2075 10,577 5,143 (48.6%) 3,499 (33.1%) 657 (6.2%) 750 (7.1%) 461 (4.4%) 67 (0.6%)
    2080 10,674 5,068 (47.5%) 3,681 (34.5%) 650 (6.1%) 739 (6.9%) 468 (4.4%) 69 (0.7%)
    2085 10,750 4,987 (46.4%) 3,851 (35.8%) 643 (6.0%) 726 (6.8%) 474 (4.4%) 71 (0.7%)
    2090 10,810 4,901 (45.3%) 4,008 (37.1%) 638 (5.9%) 711 (6.6%) 479 (4.4%) 72 (0.7%)
    2095 10,852 4,812 (44.3%) 4,152 (38.3%) 634 (5.8%) 696 (6.4%) 485 (4.5%) 74 (0.7%)
    2100 10,875 4,719 (43.4%) 4,280 (39.4%) 630 (5.8%) 680 (6.3%) 491 (4.5%) 75 (0.7%)

    Mathematical approximations

    In 1975, Sebastian von Hoerner proposed a formula for population growth which represented hyperbolic growth with an infinite population in 2025.[134] The hyperbolic growth of the world population observed until the 1970s was later correlated to a non-linear second order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. This feedback can be described as follows: technological advance → increase in the carrying capacity of land for people → demographic growth → more people → more potential inventors → acceleration of technological advance → accelerating growth of the carrying capacity → faster population growth → accelerating growth of the number of potential inventors → faster technological advance → hence, the faster growth of the Earth's carrying capacity for people, and so on.[135] The transition from hyperbolic growth to slower rates of growth is related to the demographic transition.

    According to the Russian demographer Sergey Kapitsa,[136] the world population grew between 67,000 BC and 1965 according to the following formula:

    N={\frac {C}{\tau }}\operatorname {arccot} {\frac {T_{0}-T}{\tau }}

    where

    • N is current population
    • T is the current year
    • C = (1.86±0.01)·1011
    • T0 = 2007±1
    • \tau = 42±1

    Years for world population to double

    According to linear interpolation and extrapolation of UNDESA population estimates, the world population has doubled, or will double, in the years listed in the tables below (with two different starting points). During the 2nd millennium, each doubling took roughly half as long as the previous doubling, fitting the hyperbolic growth model mentioned above. However, after 2024, it is unlikely that there will be another doubling of the global population in the 21st century.[137]

    Historic chart showing the periods of time the world population has taken to double, from 1700 to 2000
    Population
    (in billions)
    0.51248
    Year 15001804192719742024
    Years elapsed 3041234750
    Population
    (in billions)
    0.3750.751.536
    Year 11711715188119601999
    Years elapsed 5441667939

    Number of humans who have ever lived

    Further information: Prehistoric demography

    Estimates of the total number of humans who have ever lived range is estimated to be of the order of 100 billion. Such estimates can only be rough approximations; as even modern population estimates are subject to uncertainty of around 3% to 5%.[22] Kapitza (1996) cites estimates ranging between 80 and 150 billion.[138] Haub (1995) prepared another figure, updated in 2002 and 2011; the 2011 figure was approximately 107 billion.[139][140][141] Haub characterized this figure as an estimate that required "selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period".[140]

    Robust population data only exist for the last two or three centuries. Until the late 18th century, few governments had ever performed an accurate census. In many early attempts, such as in Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire, the focus was on counting merely a subset of the population for purposes of taxation or military service.[142] Thus, there is a significant margin of error when estimating ancient global populations. Pre-modern infant mortality rates are another critical factor for such an estimate; these rates are very difficult to estimate for ancient times due to a lack of accurate records. Haub (1995) estimates that around 40% of those who have ever lived did not survive beyond their first birthday. Haub also stated that "life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history",[140] which is not to be mistaken for the life expectancy after reaching adulthood. The latter equally depended on period, location and social standing, but calculations identify averages from roughly 30 years upward.

    See also

    Explanatory notes

    References

    1. ^World Population: 2020 Overview
    2. ^2020 World Population Data Sheet
    3. ^"World Population to Hit Milestone With Birth of 7 Billionth Person". PBS NewsHour. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
    4. ^"World population hits 6 billion". 4 March 2004. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
    5. ^Jean-Noël Biraben (1980), "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution". Population, Selected Papers. Vol. 4. pp. 1–13. Original paper in French:(b) Jean-Noël Biraben (1979)."Essai sur l'évolution du nombre des hommes". Population. Vol. 34 (no. 1). pp. 13–25.
    6. ^ ab"World Population Prospects". esa.un.org. Population Division – United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
    7. ^Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Roser, Max (9 May 2013). "World Population Growth". Our World in Data. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
    8. ^"World Population Prospects". UN.org. 2019. Archived from the original on 11 December 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
    9. ^Cave, Damien; Bubola, Emma; Sang-Hun, Choe (22 May 2021). "Long Slide Looms for World Population, With Sweeping Ramifications". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
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    Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population

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