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List of United States over-the-air television networks

Wikipedia list article

The five major U.S. English-language commercial broadcast network logos

In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only three or four major commercial national terrestrialnetworks. From 1946 to 1956, these were ABC, CBS, NBC and DuMont (though the Paramount Television Network had some limited success during these years). From 1956 to 1986, the "Big Three" national commercial networks were ABC, CBS, and NBC (with a few limited attempts to challenge them, such as National Telefilm Associates [and its NTA Film Network] and the Overmyer Network). From 1954 to 1970, National Educational Television was the national clearinghouse for public TV programming; the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) succeeded it in 1970.

Today, more than fifty national free-to-air networks exist. Other than the non-commercial educational (NCE) PBS, which is composed of member stations, the largest terrestrial television networks are the traditional Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS and NBC). Many other large networks exist, however, notably Fox and The CW which air original programming for two hours each night instead of three like the original "Big Three" do, as well as syndication services like MyNetworkTV and Ion which feature reruns of recent popular shows with little to no original programming. Fox has just about the same household reach percentage as the Big Three, and is therefore often considered a peer to ABC, NBC, and CBS since it has also achieved equal or better ratings since the late 1990s; as of 2019, it also programs the equivalent amount of sports programming as the Big Three. Most media outlets now include Fox in what they refer to as the "Big Four" TV networks.

The transition to digital broadcasting in 2009 has allowed for television stations to offer additional programming options through digital subchannels, one or more supplementary programming streams to the station's primary channel that are achieved through multiplexing of a station's signal. A number of new commercial networks airing specialty programming such as movies, reruns of classic series and lifestyle programs have been created from companies like Weigel Broadcasting, Luken Communications and even owners of the major networks such as Fox Corporation (through the Fox Entertainment subsidiary), ViacomCBS, The Walt Disney Company (through the Walt Disney Television subsidiary) and Comcast (through the NBCUniversal subsidiary). Through the use of multicasting, there have also been a number of new Spanish-language and non-commercial public TV networks that have launched.

Free-to-air networks in the U.S. can be divided into five categories:

  • Commercial networks – which air English-language programming to a general audience (for example, CBS);
  • Spanish-language networks – fully programmed networks which air Spanish-language programming to a primarily Latin American audience (for example, Telemundo and Univision);
  • Educational and other non-commercial broadcast networks – which air English- and some foreign-language television programming, intended to be educational in nature or otherwise of a sort not found on commercial television (for example, PBS);
  • Religious broadcast networks – which air religious study and other faith-based programs, and in some cases, family-oriented secular programs (for example, Daystar).
  • Shopping networks – which air live presentations of various products intended to be sold directly to the viewer (for example, HSN and QVC).

Each network sends its signal to many local affiliatetelevision stations across the country. These local stations then air the "network feed," with programs broadcast by each network being viewed by up to tens of millions of households across the country. In the case of the largest networks, the signal is sent to over 200 stations. In the case of the smallest networks, the signal may be sent to just a dozen or fewer stations.

As of the 2016–17 television season, there are an estimated 118.4 million households in the U.S. with at least one TV set.[1]

Major[edit]

Table of networks[edit]

All of the networks listed below operate a number of terrestrial TV stations. In addition, several of these networks are also aired on pay television services.

Name Owner (Subsidiary) Launch Date % of U.S. households reached # of households viewable # of Full-PowerAffiliates# of Low-power/Class-A affiliates Language Description Notes
NBCNBCUniversal

(Comcast)

1939[2]97% 114,848,000 226~338 English Major commercial network
CBSViacomCBS

(National Amusements)

1941[2]215~299
ABCWalt Disney Television

(The Walt Disney Company)

1948[2]229~266
FoxFox Corporation1986[3]223~202
The CWViacomCBS (National Amusements) (50%)

WarnerMedia (AT&T) (50%)

2006[4]204~11
PBSCorporation for Public Broadcasting
(main steward, not owner, of service)
1969[5]96% 113,664,000 349 ~342 PublicNon-Commercial
MyNetworkTVMyNetworkTV, Inc.

(Fox Corporation)

2006[4]97%[6]100,640,000 151~30 Commercial/syndication service
MeTVWeigel Broadcasting2010 84% 99,456,000 17629 Classic series
PBS KidsPBS1994 83% 98,272,000 269 0 Children's programming Non-Commercial
Court TVKatz Broadcasting, LLC

(E. W. Scripps Company)

2019 80.49% 95,300,160 True crime/court news
Antenna TVNexstar Media Group2011 80% 94,720,000 11427 Classic series
Rewind TVNexstar Media Group2021 Classic series
DablViacomCBS2019 77.70% 91,996,800 Lifestyle
True Crime NetworkTegna Inc.2014 76% 92,936,000 62 10 True Crime/Investigation Launched as Justice Network
Court TV MysteryKatz Broadcasting, LLC

(E. W. Scripps Company)

75% 88,800,000 124 25 Suspense/drama/women's interest Launched as Escape
Grit120 16 Action/westerns/men's Interest
CreateAmerican Public Television, WGBH-TV, & WNET2006 86% 87,616,000 238 1 Public TV/instructional Non-Commercial
LaffLaff Media, LLC

(E. W. Scripps Company)

2015 74% 111 22 Comedy
This TVEntertainment Studios2008 8929 Classic series and films
Bounce TVBounce Media LLC

(Katz Broadcasting, LLC)

(E. W. Scripps Company)

2011 73% 86,432,000 11211 Black-centric programming
IonIon Media

(E. W. Scripps Company)

1998 (as Pax TV) 72% (OTA only) 85,248,000 10925 Commercial/syndication service
TwistTegna Inc.2021 70% 3,700,000
CometSinclair Broadcast Group (operator: MGM Television) 2015 66% 78,144,000 100 17 Science Fiction
GetTVSony Pictures Television

(Sony Corporation of America)

2014 66 20 Classic series and films
CircleCircle Media (Gray Television, Inc. & Opry Entertainment Group, Inc.) 2020 62.60% 195,620,130 960 Country music/lifestyle
Heroes & IconsWeigel Broadcasting2014 58% 68,672,000 57 30 Classic series and films
WorldAmerican Public Television, WNET, WGBH Educational Foundation, & National Educational Telecommunications Association 2007 59% 68,617,000 160 0 News and documentaries Non-Commercial
QVCQurate Retail Group1986 68,204,000 48 13 Shopping
HSNQurate Retail Group1985[7]41 46
DecadesCBS Television Stations & Weigel Broadcasting2015 57% 67,488,000 53 6 Classic series and films/Historical documentaries
Movies!Fox Television Stations

Weigel Broadcasting

(both owning 50%)

2013 5218 Feature films
Cozi TVComcast56% 66,304,000 66 31 Classic series and films/Lifestyle
Fave TVViacomCBS2020 36.56% 44,091,360 14 0
QuestTegna Inc.2018 65% 78,200,000 29 TBD Adventure programming
Start TVWeigel Broadcasting46% 54,464,000 25 6 Female lead Procedural dramas
BuzzrFremantle & RTL Group2015 45% 53,280,000 20 37 Game shows
Charge!Sinclair Broadcast Group2017 43% 50,912,000 52 4 Action series and films
Rev'nGet After It Media

(Henry Luken III)

2014 42% 49,728,000 1 44 Automotive
Retro TVGet After It Media

(Henry Luken III)

2005 34% 40,256,000 1583 Commercial, reruns
TheGrio.tvEntertainment Studios2021 33% 39,072,000 14 0 Black-centric programming
QVC2Qurate Retail Group2013 31% 36,704,000 5 34 Shopping
LocalishABC Owned Television Stations (Walt Disney Television) 2009 25% 29,600,000 8 0 Health/lifestyle
TBDSinclair Television Group (Sinclair Broadcast Group)(operated by Jukin Media) 2017 50 5 Talk/lifestyle
HeartlandGet After It Media2012 22.51% 23,342,140 2 44 Country music/lifestyle
JewelryTV[8][9]Multimedia Commerce Group, Inc. 1993 22% 26,048,000 4 30 Shopping
NewsNetNewsNet LLC 2018 19.21% 38,085,302 0 33 News
NHK WorldNHK1998 18% 20,934,000 15 0 Japanese news and information Non-Commercial
The Action ChannelGet After It Media2016 21,312,000 2 38 Men's Interest
Biz TelevisionCenter Post Media, Inc. 2009 17% 19,788,000 5 34 Business and financial information
WeatherNation TVWeatherNation, Inc (Performance One Media) 2011 20 7 Weather
The Country NetworkTCN Country, LLC 2009 20,128,000 7 33 Country music videos
Soul of the South TelevisionSSN Media Group, LP 2013 4 7 African-American programming
StadiumSinclair Television Group, Inc. (Sinclair Broadcast Group, Inc.) & Silver Chalice2017 15% 17,760,000 38 24 Sports
FNX (First Nations Experience) San Bernardino Community College District2011 12% 14,208,000 22 7 Native American programming Non-Commercial
Newsmax TVNewsmax Media2014 12% (OTA only) 14,208,000 0 23 News/Documentaries/Conservative Talk
ShopHQiMedia Brands Inc. (Comcast [12.5%]) 1991 11% 13,024,000 5 6 Shopping
France 24France Médias Monde (French Government) 2006 10% 11,640,000 4 International news Non-Commercial
MiND (MiND: Media Independence)WYBE2007 9% 10,467,000 2 0 Multicultural, educational
Shop LCVaibhav Global8% 9,472,000 0 42 Shopping
AccuWeather ChannelNational Weather Service2006 7% 8,148,000 13 4 Weather
YTA, formerly Youtoo America, formerly America OneCenter Post Media 1985 33% 34,984,000 1 34 Sports/lifestyle
Classic Arts ShowcaseThe Lloyd E. Rigler – Lawrence E. Deutsch Foundation 1994 6,978,000 3 3 Non-commercial performance art video clips Non-Commercial
The Family ChannelValCom & Get After It Media2008[10]5% 5,920,000 4 21 Classic series and films Called My Family TV until 2014.
QVC3Qurate Retail Group2016 0 5 Shopping
NewsyE. W. Scripps Company2021 4.95% General news
AMGTVAccess Media Group 2006 4.39% 1 22[11]General Entertainment
Doctor TVDoctor Television Channel, Inc. (MSGPR, Inc.) 2014 2.22% 6,942,039 Health/lifestyle
DW-TVDeutsche Welle1953 2% 2,326,000 5 1 Multicultural Non-Commercial
Minnesota ChannelTwin Cities Public Television2005 17 0 Educational television, public affairs, ethnic and local programming
Untamed Sports TV None 2008 1.29% 4,021,177 Sports/outdoors
Pursuit ChannelPursuit Media LLC 0.23% 716,644 Sports and recreation
Frost Great OutdoorsGet After It Media2011 0.02% 294,038 Outdoors/shopping
UnivisionUnivision Communications1986[12]49% 94,100,000[13]62 26 Spanish Spanish commercial
Estrella TVEstrella Media2009 46% 64,232,000 38 29
TelemundoComcast1984[14]61.60% 92,476,422 54 46
UniMásUnivision Communications2002[15]43% 59,600,000[16]35 24
AztecaHC2 Holdings
(Azteca name & brand licensed from TV Azteca)
2001 32% 37,248,000 14 28
LATVLATV Networks, LLC 27 16 Bilingual (English/Spanish) entertainment
TeleXitosNBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises
(NBCUniversal Filmed and Entertainment)
2012 42.46% 32,661,468 25 1 Spanish commercial
Mega TVSpanish Broadcasting System2006 6% 6,984,000 5 1
TeLe-RománticaDreamhouse Entertainment, LLC
(managed by TeVe-Romance)
2012 0.46% 1,425,200 Telenovelas/lifestyle
Inmigrante TV2010 0% 0 Spanish political news and commentary
MultimediosGrupo Multimedios1968 2.22% 6,942,039 Spanish commercial
DaystarWord of God Fellowship 1982 56% 64,736,000 20 80 English Religious
SonLife Broadcasting Network2010 44% 52,096,000 22 77
enlace[17]2002 41% 48,554,000 37 9 Spanish Spanish-language religious programming
TBN1973 40% 47,360,000 39 10 English Religious
Smile of a Child TV[17]Trinity Broadcasting Network2005 35 12 Religious children's programming
Positiv[17][18](formerly JCTV and JUCE TV)Trinity Broadcasting Network2003 36 10 Christian and Family-oriented movies
Hillsong Channel[17]Hillsong Church & Trinity Broadcasting Network2002 35 9 Religious
3ABNThree Angels Broadcasting Network 1984 27% 31,968,000 2 133
3ABN Latino Three Angels Broadcasting Network 2003 20% 23,680,000 0 124 Spanish Spanish religious
Peace TV2006 15% 17,760,000 7 English Religious (Islamic)
Dare to Dream NetworkThree Angels Broadcasting Network 2010 13% 15,392,000 101 Religious
3ABN Proclaim!Three Angels Broadcasting Network 2010 13% 15,392,000 109
Almavision2002 8% 9,472,000 9 Spanish Spanish religious
TCT1977 9% 27,992,924 8 8 English Religious
Cornerstone Television[19]1979[20]7.94% 24,796,415 2 12
Hope ChannelSeventh-day Adventist Church2003 6.74% 21,058,587 0 15
The Walk TV2010 7.52% 23,506,549 3 12
CTN1979 5% 5,780,000 11 5
God TV1995 5% 5,780,000 2 2
WHTFamily Broadcasting Corporation1985[21]5% 5,780,000 7 4
EWTN1981 3.50% 10,928,781 1 7 Religious (Catholic)
The Word Network2000 1.5% 1,734,000 2 Religious
TLN1973 1% 1,156,000 1 0
Tvida Vision2005 0.7% 809,200 0 2 Spanish Spanish religious
The Worship Network[7]1992 0.6% 693,600 1 English Religious
Tele Vida Abundante1985 0.32% 1,004,355 3 Spanish Spanish religious (Jewish)
GLC1982 0.25% 289,000 5 0 English Religious

Information on networks[edit]

Conventional commercial networks[edit]

  • American Broadcasting Company (ABC) – The nation's third-largest commercial network, ABC was originally formed from the NBC Blue Network (1927–1945), a radio network which the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) forced NBC (National Broadcasting Company) to sell in 1943 for anti-monopoly reasons, the ABC-TV network began broadcasting in 1948. Owned by The Walt Disney Company, ABC airs original programming, sports, and news seven days a week. It has over 200 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations, almost all of which air local newscasts.
  • CBS (originally the Columbia Broadcasting System) – The nation's second-largest commercial network, it originated as the CBS Radio Network in 1927; the CBS-TV network commenced broadcasts in 1941. Owned now by ViacomCBS, CBS airs original programming, sports and news seven days a week. The network has over 200 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations, almost all of which air local newscasts. For most of its existence, CBS has been the nation's most watched network.
  • National Broadcasting Company (NBC) – The nation's largest and oldest commercial network, the NBC-TV network was formed out of the NBC Red Network radio service, which launched in 1926; the network commenced television broadcasts in 1939. Owned by NBCUniversal, NBC airs original programming, sports and news seven days a week. It has over 200 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations, almost all of which air local newscasts.
  • Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox) – The nation's fourth-largest commercial network owned by Fox Corporation, Fox was launched in October 1986 through former parent News Corporation's purchase of Metromedia earlier that year (two of the network's owned-and-operated stations once owned by that group at its founding had formed the hub of the old DuMont Television Network, which existed from 1944 to 1956) and the purchase of the 20th Century Fox film studio, originally established in 1915 as Fox Film Corporation by William Fox and 20th Century Pictures founded 1933 and merged into Fox Film in 1935, five years after founder Fox lost control. After a half-century of up and down success, the studio now by Fox Corporation with Australian and later British and American newspaper chain mogul Rupert Murdoch who had bought into the studio in 1985. Fox airs first-run programming and sports seven days a week, programming two hours each night in primetime (three hours on Sundays), along with political talk program Fox News Sunday on Sunday mornings and the optional infomercial block Weekend Marketplace on Saturday mornings. (Fox also allows affiliates the option to air the Xploration Station block on Saturday mornings in place of Weekend Marketplace.) It has nearly 200 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations, almost all of which air local newscasts, with some producing newscasts in-house and others airing newscasts produced by a local affiliate of another major network.
  • The CW – The nation's fifth-largest commercial network, The CW was originally formed by CBS Corporation (now merged with Viacom to create ViacomCBS) and Time Warner (now WarnerMedia) as a replacement for The WB and UPN, both of which folded in September 2006 after 11 years of existence and whose programs formed most of its initial schedule. It maintains approximately 100 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations in the top 100 television markets; it also has approximately 90 additional cable-only and digital subchannel affiliations in smaller TV markets through a fully programmed feed known as The CW Plus. The network airs two hours of first-run programming in primetime and one hour in daytime on Monday through Fridays, as well as a five-hour children's program block on Saturday mornings called One Magnificent Morning. Unlike the larger networks, The CW does not have owned-and-operated flagship stations in New York City and Los Angeles, due to CBS's duopolies with independent stations in those two markets (WLNY-TV and KCAL-TV, respectively); The CW's owned-and-operated flagship stations are located in Philadelphia and San Francisco instead (WPSG and KBCW-TV, respectively). CBS Television Stations serves as the network's O&O station group, as WarnerMedia has no broadcast assets. Some CW affiliates air local newscasts, most of which are produced by another station in the market though ten of its affiliates (most owned by Nexstar) produce local newscasts in-house.
  • MyNetworkTV – MyNetworkTV is a programming service owned by Fox Corporation, which is also parent of the Fox network. It was hastily formed in February 2006 to provide programming for stations left out of affiliation with The CW, after CBS Corporation and Time Warner chose to shut down UPN and The WB to form that network. The network launched in September 2006 with a format of English-language telenovelas, but gradually switched to mainly low-budget programming by the end of its first year. Since it converted from a TV network into a programming service in 2009, MyNetworkTV fills its two-hour primetime schedule on Monday through Fridays with reruns of drama series that originated on other broadcast and cable networks. Some MyNetworkTV affiliates air local newscasts, most of which are produced by another station in the market (San Francisco and Philadelphia affiliates KRON-TV and WPHL-TV are the only affiliates that produce their local news programming in-house). Some affiliates also carry the nightly scheduled out of primetime to accommodate those newscasts and alternate programming (or in the case of several affiliates are primary Fox affiliates), and offer MyNetworkTV as a late night offering instead. For the Fox Television Stations group, most of its stations now brand as a "Plus" station of the larger Fox O&O station if part of a duopoly.
  • Ion Television – Ion Television (originally known as Pax TV from 1998 to 2005, i: Independent Television from 2005 to 2007) is a mid-sized network and syndication service owned by the Ion Media subsidiary of the E. W. Scripps Company; it airs off-network repeats of recent television series (usually a daily block of one series) for eighteen hours per day. Ion is the largest English-language network that is wholly responsible for handling programming on behalf of its affiliates, some of which run limited locally produced public affairs and religious programming. It has around 48 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations, the majority of which are owned by parent Ion Media; Ion is available in markets without an over-the-air (OTA) affiliate via a national feed that is distributed to cable and satellite providers. As Pax TV and i, it aired several hours a week of original programming in primetime (often produced in conjunction with NBC).

Minor and digital multicast commercial networks[edit]

  • MeTV (a backronym for "Memorable Entertainment Television") – MeTV is a network owned by Weigel Broadcasting that airs reruns of classic series from the 1950s to the 1990s sourced primarily from the CBS Media Ventures, NBCUniversal Television Distribution and 20th Television program libraries, as well as some limited content from Weigel. The network maintains over 160 affiliates (mainly through digital subchannel affiliations, with a small number of stations carrying it as a primary network affiliation), making it the most widely distributed multicast network and the seventh-largest commercial broadcast network in the U.S.
  • This TV – This TV is a movie-oriented multicast network owned by the Allen Media Group unit of Entertainment Studios; originally owned by MGM in conjunction with Weigel Broadcasting and later Tribune Broadcasting, the network was launched on November 1, 2008. The network primarily carries feature films from the libraries of MGM and select other film studios (such as Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures and Sony Pictures Entertainment), as well as limited amount of TV series from the 1950s to the 1990s. The network maintains over 110 affiliate stations (primarily on digital subchannels, with a small number of stations carrying the network as a primary network affiliation), making This TV the eighth-largest commercial broadcast network in the U.S.
  • Antenna TV – Antenna TV is a digital multicast network owned by Nexstar Media Group; launched on January 1, 2011, the network carries classic series from the 1950s to the 1970s sourced from the programming libraries of Sony Pictures Television, NBCUniversal Television Distribution and 20th Television, as well as other distributors.
  • Rewind TV – Rewind TV is a companion network to Antenna TV also owned by Nexstar which specifically carries sitcoms from the 1980s and 1990s. The network launched on September 1, 2021.
  • Movies! – Movies! is a digital multicast network owned as a joint venture between Weigel Broadcasting and Fox Television Stations; launched on May 23, 2013 and natively transmitted in the 16:9 format, the network features theatrically released feature films from the 1920s to the 1980s primarily sourced from the 20th Century Fox library, as well as select titles from Sony Pictures Entertainment and Paramount Pictures, most of which are broadcast in the aspect ratio to which they were originally produced. Movies! maintains subchannel-only affiliations with approximately 45 stations.
  • Bounce TV – Bounce TV is a digital multicast network owned by Katz Broadcasting; co-founded by Martin Luther King III and Andrew Young, and launched on September 26, 2011. Its programming is aimed at African Americans between the ages of 25 and 54, featuring a mix of acquired sitcoms, game shows, talk shows, original programs, and feature films. Bounce TV maintains affiliations with approximately 45 stations (the vast majority of which are subchannel-only affiliations), primarily in markets with sizeable African-American populations.
  • Cozi TV – Cozi TV is a digital multicast network owned by the NBCUniversal Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal; launched on January 1, 2013, the network carries classic series from the 1950s to the 1990s sourced from the NBCUniversal Television Distribution programming library, as well as lifestyle programming and feature films. Cozi TV traces its history to the 2010 launch of NBC Nonstop, a local news and lifestyle programming subchannel format that spread to most of NBC's owned-and-operated stations. The network maintains approximately 65 affiliates, including all of NBC's owned-and-operated stations (nearly all of which carry the network on digital subchannels).
  • GetTV – GetTV is a digital multicast network owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment; launched on February 13, 2014, the network focuses on classic theatrically released films from the 1920s to the 1960s sourced mainly from Sony Pictures library. Most are broadcast in the aspect ratio to which they were originally produced. However, due to the network's native 4:3 transmission, films presented in widescreen are presented with letterboxing). The network maintains subchannel-only affiliations with approximately 64 affiliates, along with a bulk carriage agreement with their Sony sister networks on Dish Network.
  • Charge! – Charge! is a digital multicast network owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group and operated by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer through its MGM Television division; launched on February 28, 2017; the network features action and adventure based programming sourced primarily from the MGM television and film library. Charge! maintains affiliations with 56 stations (nearly all of which carry the network on digital subchannels).
  • Court TV – A renewal of the format which was formerly a cable channel until its 2007 relaunch as TruTV, Court TV is a digital multicast network owned by Katz Broadcasting licensing the branding and format from WarnerMedia; launched on May 8, 2019 and natively transmitted in the 16:9 format (although some programs are stretched to 16:9 if not already available in the format), the network features crime-themed programs such as true crime documentary series, legal dramas, and coverage of prominent criminal cases. Court TV maintains subchannel-only affiliations with approximately 65 affiliates.
  • Court TV Mystery – Court TV Mystery (originally known as Escape) is a digital multicast network owned by Katz Broadcasting; launched on August 8, 2014 and natively transmitted in the 16:9 format (although some programs are stretched to 16:9 if not already available in the format), the network features crime-focused documentary series, as well as theatrically released mystery and crime drama films aimed at a female audience. Court TV Mystery maintains subchannel-only affiliations with approximately 35 affiliates.
  • Grit – Grit is a digital multicast network owned by Katz Broadcasting; launched on August 8, 2014 and natively transmitted in the 16:9 format (although some programs are stretched to 16:9 if not already available in the format), the network features theatrically released action and western films, as well as a limited amount of classic series aimed at a male audience. Grit maintains subchannel-only affiliations with around 45 stations.
  • WeatherNation TV – WeatherNation TV is a television and online network owned by WeatherNation, LLC; launched on October 27, 2011 and natively transmitted in the 16:9 format. The network features national and regional weather forecasts and analysis. The network's broadcast affiliates also air local weather updates provided by the station's weather staff or via an automated graphical segment. The network maintains subchannel-only affiliations with approximately 35 stations; WeatherNation is also available on select cable and satellite providers, as well as via streaming on computers, mobile devices and Smart TVs.
  • TBD – TBD is a digital multicast network owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group; launched on February 13, 2017, the network primarily carries various web-originated films, scripted and unscripted series, showcase programming, and featurettes on a wide range of topical and themed categories including, but not limited to, science, fashion, lifestyle, travel, music, comedy, gaming, eSports, and viral content. Some traditional full-length films and documentaries also air on the network. TBD maintains subchannel-only affiliations with 55 stations owned and/or operated by Sinclair.
  • Decades – Decades is a digital multicast network owned by a joint venture between ViacomCBS and Weigel Broadcasting; launched officially on May 25, 2015 after a soft launch on January 16, the network carries classic television sitcoms and drama series from the 1950s to the 2000s, feature films from the same period, and historical news and documentary programming, most of which is sourced from the CBS Television Distribution library. Decades maintains subchannel-only affiliations with 54 stations, including all of CBS's owned-and-operated stations.
  • Heroes & Icons – Heroes & Icons (abbreviated as "H&I") is a digital multicast network owned by Weigel Broadcasting; launched in September 2014, the network carries classic series and films intended to attract a generally male audience (featuring a mix of action series, police procedurals, westerns, science fiction/fantasy series and military-themed series). Heroes & Icons maintains affiliations with around 15 stations (nearly all of which carry the network as a subchannel-only affiliation).
  • Buzzr – Buzzr is a digital multicast network owned by FremantleMedia North America; launched on June 1, 2015, the network carries classic game shows sourced from FremantleMedia's extensive library. The network traces its roots to a YouTube channel of the same name created and produced by Fremantle's digital content studio Tiny Riot, which debuted in late 2014 and featured classic game show clips, and short-form adaptations of its game show properties with internet celebrities as contestants. Buzzr maintains affiliations with 51 stations (most of which carry the network as a subchannel-only affiliation).
  • Retro Television Network – Retro Television Network (branded as "Retro TV") is a digital multicast network owned by Luken Communications; launched in September 2005 as the first multicast network to rely on older acquired programs, the network carries a mix of classic series from the 1950s to the 1970s (including some public domain programming), along with recent imported series and feature films. Retro Television Network maintains affiliations with approximately 85 stations (most of which carry the network as a subchannel-only affiliation, and are mostly owned by parent Luken Communications).
  • YTA TV – A successor to Channel America and formerly named America One and Youtoo America, YTA TV is a network featuring general entertainment programming (which is wholly scheduled by the network for its affiliates), with a heavy emphasis on primetime sports programming and events; it maintains affiliations with approximately sixty stations. America One merged with Youtoo TV in the spring of 2015, a cable service which dates back to 1985 as a network with multiple names, formats and owners, including the Nostalgia Channel and American Life Network.
  • ShopHQ – Generally thought of as the third-rated American home shopping network (behind the co-owned HSN and QVC, who also have some broadcast clearance), cable channel ShopHQ, formerly ValueVision and ShopNBC in the past, acquired main-channel major-market carriage controversially in June 2021, when WRNN-TV Associates, which had bought several large-market stations in the late 2010s with the proceeds it received from the FCC spectrum auction for selling off the bandwidth of New York station WRNN-TV, converted the main channel of their stations to ShopHQ, which pushed out ethnic programs and broadcasters which formerly filled that space under previous ownership and generally angered viewers and carriage providers for doing so. The existing local management of one station, Honolulu, Hawaii's KIKU, openly agitated for a sale in order to restore their Japanese-Filipino schedule, and found a buyer who is likely to do so.

Additionally, several of the cable-oriented theme channels (e.g. music or shopping channels) have obtained broadcast clearances, usually on low-power stations, in many markets.

Spanish-language commercial networks[edit]

  • Univision – The flagship property of corporate parent Univision Communications, Univision was formed in 1986 following the sale of predecessor Spanish International Network (SIN) to Hallmark from Mexican broadcaster Televisa due to federal laws that restrict foreign ownership of U.S. TV networks. The network airs a mix of telenovelas, news and variety programming (either produced by the network or sourced primarily from Televisa), as well as soccer events and occasional Mexican-imported feature films. It is the nation's largest commercial Spanish-language network, with approximately 120 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations (including over 50 full-power stations); Univision is available in markets without an over-the-air affiliate via a national feed (east and west channels) that is distributed to satellite providers. Most of its stations produce and/or broadcast local newscasts, usually limited to weekday evening time slots in most markets. Since the mid-2000s, Univision has ranked as the fifth highest-rated commercial network overall on average, currently placing ahead of English language competitor The CW.[22]
  • Telemundo – Telemundo is a general entertainment network owned by NBCUniversal; the network carries a mix of original and imported telenovelas, general and entertainment news programs, feature films (both dubbed and natively produced in Spanish), sports and variety programming (much of the network's programming is filmed in the network's homebase of Miami, although its imported programming is sourced from Mexico, Colombia and to a lesser extent, Brazil). The nation's second-largest commercial Spanish-language network, Telemundo has over 100 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations (including approximately 40 full-power stations); it is also available in Mexico and Puerto Rico (where it was founded in 1954 as the brand name for WKAQ-TV). Most Telemundo stations air local newscasts, primarily aired in evening timeslots, although some affiliates also produce public affairs programming. Telemundo is available in markets without an over-the-air affiliate via a national feed (east and west channels) that is distributed to cable and satellite providers.
  • UniMás (known as TeleFutura from its launch in January 2002 until January 2013) – UniMás is a general entertainment network owned by Univision Communications, which airs a mix of original and imported programming, consisting of telenovelas, Spanish-dubbed versions of U.S. feature films and sports programming aimed primarily at teenagers and young adults ages 12 to 34. UniMás maintains nearly 45 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations (including 35 full-power stations), and is the third-largest commercial Spanish-language network in the U.S.; UniMás is available in markets without an over-the-air affiliate via a national feed (east and west channels) that is distributed to satellite providers.
  • Azteca (originally known as Azteca América from 2001 to 2014) – Azteca is a general entertainment network owned by HC2 Holdings under a license by the Azteca International Corporation, featuring programming primarily sourced from the Mexican Azteca networks (though much of the American network's programming airs at different times), along with original and imported programming from other U.S. and Latin American distributors; it carries a mix of telenovelas, feature films (both dubbed and natively produced in Spanish), sports, news and variety programming. Azteca maintains nearly 90 affiliates (including eight full-power stations), and is the nation's fourth-largest commercial Spanish-language network; it is also available nationally on select cable providers.
  • Estrella TV – Estrella TV is a general entertainment network owned by Estrella Media (formerly Liberman Broadcasting); it airs mainly original variety programming, as well as general and entertainment news programming, limited scripted programming and imported Mexican feature films. The network was launched in 2009, featuring programming originally produced for the Liberman-owned Spanish language independent stations that formed the nucleus of the network. Estrella TV maintains nearly 35 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations (most of which are owned by Estrella or carry the network as a subchannel-only affiliation), and is the fifth-largest commercial Spanish-language network; it is also available nationally on select cable providers.
  • Multimedios Televisión – Multimedios is a general entertainment network based out of Monterrey, Nuevo León which features mainly live studio variety programming and news, and is a major regional network in Northeastern Mexico which also features several stations along the Southern Texas border, and tailors their programming (and through local stations, news programming) to both Mexican and American viewers. The network is distributed through several separately owned over-the-air affiliates in the U.S. mainly in the Southwest and southern Texas, and nationally through cable providers and DirecTV.
  • LATV – LATV is a bilingual general entertainment network owned by LATV Networks, LLC; originated as a programming format on KJLA in Los Angeles, the network's lone owned-and-operated station, it became a national network in 2007. It relies largely on unscripted programming aimed at young adults between the ages of 18 and 34, featuring a mix of variety, music, lifestyle and talk programs (most of which are sourced by MVS Television and Multimedios Televisión); LATV also airs a limited amount of English language programming, including overnight content from cable/satellite shopping network Shop LC. LATV maintains nearly 40 owned-and-operated and affiliate stations (available mostly on low-power stations).
  • TeleXitos (originally known as Exitos TV from 2012 to December 2014) – TeleXitos is a digital multicast network owned by NBCUniversal; maintaining affiliations with 15 Telemundo owned-and-operated stations,[23][24] the network originally carried a format featuring repeats of telenovelas (mainly those aired by Telemundo), before rebranding in December 2014 to feature Spanish dubbed versions of U.S. classic action-adventure series and feature films, effectively acting as a Spanish counterpart to fellow network Cozi TV.[25]

Additionally, Televisa, which distributes programming to Univision in the United States, operates in Mexico, but the company's networks (Canal de las Estrellas, Canal 5 and Nueve) have certain stations which can be received in parts of the U.S. located along and near the Mexican border, and likewise with the American networks have affiliates located or receivable in Mexican border cities. Some Mexican border stations (such as the former English-language ABC/Fox/CW affiliate XETV-TDT in Tijuana) who formerly maintained affiliations with U.S.-based English or Spanish networks, but mainly targeted their programming at their American border city (more than the Mexican metropolitan area that they are based in or merely licensed to).

Although the English-language programming model in the U.S. traditionally relies on the network and its stations handling programming responsibilities, Spanish language networks handle most of the responsibility for programming, while affiliates are limited to breakaways from the network feed to provide local news, public affairs and/or entertainment programming as well as local advertising. As such, all Spanish language networks primarily available on broadcast TV operate national feeds that are distributed to cable and satellite providers in markets without a local affiliate. Spanish-language independent stations also exist, although (particularly with the launch of Estrella TV and Azteca), these are very limited and they mainly exist in markets with a large Hispanic and Latino American population.

Public/cultural/educational non-commercial[edit]

  • PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) – PBS is the largest public broadcasting network in the U.S., with somewhat decentralized operations (PBS is essentially owned through a consortium of its member stations, reversing the traditional network-station ownership model). The network operates or has operated 24-hour program feeds carried part-time or full-time by its member stations, the PBS Satellite Service (which maintains feeds for the Eastern and Pacific Time Zones, and was originally conceived as a cable-only channel for areas not served by a PBS station), PBS YOU (devoted largely to adult education, crafts, and public affairs programming, which ceased operations in January 2006), the PBS Kids Channel (a children's programming network, which was discontinued on September 26, 2005 (though later revived on January 16, 2017) in favor of the advertiser-supported cable channel PBS Kids Sprout). PBS allows its member stations to run the network's programs out of pattern; member stations generally produce their own local programming in the form of news (mainly weekly news/analysis series, though a few stations carry daily newscasts), documentary and lifestyle programming that is aired alongside the PBS schedule.
  • NYC Media – NYC Media is the broadcasting service of the City of New York, which offers original programming. Available nationally on PBS stations, NYC Media in actuality, serves as a provider of programming to several noncommercial broadcasters in New York outside of its originating station, WNYE-TV.
  • Annenberg Channel – Originally known as Annenberg/CPB Channel and formerly operating as a national educational access network for public broadcasters and schools that broadcast Annenberg/CPB programs, Annenberg Channel was available on some cable and satellite providers; it now operates as an online streaming service that is offered for carriage by broadcast stations and cable providers; many of the channel's broadcast affiliates carried its programming to fill overnight and "fringe" timeslots (with only a few still doing so). It shared some programming with PBS YOU, various university- and college-owned stations around the U.S., and the now defunct Research Channel.
  • Deutsche Welle (DW-TV) – Deutsche Welle is a Germany-based non-commercial television service which provides some English-language news programming to public TV stations; its programming feed is available part-time on select educational independent stations, including some stations carried on the World Channel. DW-TV is also carried full time in some stations.
  • Create – Create is a digital multicast network owned by American Public Television (in partnership with PBS, member stations WGBH-TV, WNET and WLIW, and the National Educational Television Association), offering instructional (consisting of cooking, crafts and home improvement series) and travel programming; the network was launched in January 2006 in part to fill the void left by the shut down of PBS YOU, and its primarily carried on the subchannels of PBS member stations.
  • NHK World – A Japanese-based noncommercial television station that provides English-language news and other programs from NHK.
  • World Channel (also referred to as "World") – World is a digital multicast network owned by American Public Television (in partnership with PBS, WGBH-TV, WNET, WLIW and the National Educational Television Association), which primarily carries news and documentary programming.
  • First Nations Experience (FNX) – FNX is a non-profit television network owned by the San Bernardino Community College District that airs programs aimed to Native Americans as well as Indigenous audiences. The network currently has 47 affiliates, most of which are part of PBS stations and universities.

Religious[edit]

Several religious networks allow their broadcast affiliates to carry their programming out-of-pattern through clearance arrangements, notably TBN, 3ABN, Hope Channel and World Harvest Television.

Defunct networks[edit]

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(November 2010)

  • American Independent Network – A commercial broadcast network, which operated from the mid-1990s to December 3, 2001; predecessor to UATV
  • America's Store – A cable and satellite shopping network spun off from the Home Shopping Network, which operated from 1988 to April 3, 2007; its broadcast affiliates were a mix of stations that carried the network full-time as well as overnight clearances on minor network affiliates and independent stations.
  • AZN Television (originally known as International Channel) – A broadcast and cable network, which operated from 1996 to April 9, 2008, featuring a mix of international programming, which launched before the advent of digital cable and satellite services that allowed carriage of various foreign networks; the AZN iteration offered programming aimed at English-speaking Asian-Americans.
  • Badger Television Network – A short-lived television network consisting of three stations in Wisconsin; operated from January to August 1958.
  • The Box (originally Video Jukebox Network) – A music video network with a viewer request format, which operated from 1985 to 2001, at which time the network was purchased by Viacom and replaced by MTV2. All of MTV2's remaining broadcast affiliates were former affiliates of The Box.
  • Channel America – A commercial broadcast network which operated from 1988 to 1995; it was the first commercial television network whose affiliate body was intentionally made up of low-power stations, serving as a model for Pax and AIN/UATV, and a predecessor of America One.
  • CV Network (formally CaribeVisión) – A Spanish-language network, which operated from 2007 to July 31, 2012; network closed prior to the launch of MundoFox.
  • DuMont Television Network – A commercial broadcast network owned by DuMont Laboratories, which operated from 1946 to 1956; two of its owned-and-operated stations are now owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation as O&Os of the Fox network.[3]
  • FamilyNet – A general interest cable network owned by the Rural Media Group; launched in 1988, it went through several owners and mainly featured a religious format; owners included Jerry Falwell and the Southern Baptist Convention before its acquisition by the Rural Media Group, the parent of the rural-focused RFD-TV in 2013. After its sale it programmed a slate of classic television programming from Sony Pictures Television until July 1, 2017, when Rural Media converted it to a Western-focused sports network, The Cowboy Channel; all remaining over-the-air carriage agreements were nullified.
  • Hispanic Television Network – A family-oriented Spanish-language network, which operated from 2000 to July 10, 2003.
  • Hughes Television Network (HTN; originally Sports Network Incorporated) – A sports-based broadcast network later owned by businessman Howard Hughes, which operated from 1956 to the 1970s.
  • Inmigrante TV – The station was founded in 2010 by immigration attorney Manuel Solis. Much of the programming consists of advertising for Solis' law firm. Ceased operations in mid-2010s.
  • ImaginAsian – The company ceased in 2011, with the television network becoming MNet.
  • Ion Plus: Originally launched as lifestyle network Ion Life on February 19, 2007, the network relaunched as the general entertainment network Ion Plus before being discontinued on February 28, 2021.
  • La Familia Cosmovision – Ceased operations on December 31, 2014.
  • LAT TV – A Spanish-language network offering family-oriented and educational programming, which operated from May 19, 2006 to May 20, 2008.
  • Light TV - A family-oriented network from MGM and Mark Burnett. Was acquired by Allen Media Group in 2020 and was renamed and reformatted to The Grio the following year.
  • MGM Family Network – A commercial broadcast network, which launched in 1973.
  • Más Música – A Spanish-language music video network, which operated from 1998 to January 2006; predecessor of Tr3s.
  • Metromedia – A media company that owned radio and TV stations that was founded after the collapse of DuMont, airing mostly syndicated programming. It operated from 1956 to 1997. The parent company survives as MetroMedia Technologies.
  • MHz WorldView – An independent, American, non-commercialpublic television network that broadcasts newscasts and other programs from around the world from October 19, 2005 to March 1, 2020.[29]
  • Mizlou Television Network – An occasional over-the-air broadcast network and sports syndication service, which operated from 1961 to 1991.
  • Mobil Showcase Network – An occasional over-the-air broadcast network, which operated in the 1950s.
  • MTV2 – A general entertainment and music network owned by Viacom, which remains distributed mainly on cable and satellite providers; it became a broadcast network on January 1, 2001 when it assumed the operations of The Box, but slowly dropped its broadcast affiliates in subsequent years as existing affiliation contracts expired.
  • MundoMax – MundoMax was a general entertainment network operated by Colombian broadcaster RCN Televisión SA. Launched in August 2012 as MundoFox, the network broadcast original and imported telenovelas and teleseries, as well as feature films (both dubbed and natively produced in Spanish), news and variety programming, with some imported content being sourced by RCN and NTN24. MundoMax maintained approximately 60 affiliate stations (consisting of mostly low-power stations with some full-power affiliates, with some Fox Television Stations-owned outlets carrying the network via subchannel-only affiliations to alleviate availability issues in markets where the network had a low-power affiliate and/or limited cable distribution before Fox International Channels sold its stake in MundoFox to RCN Televisión in July 2015. Some MundoMax stations aired local newscasts, while some also carry public affairs programs. The network ceased broadcast on November 30, 2016.
  • National Educational Television (NET) – An educational broadcast network, which operated from 1952 to 1970. First named the Educational Television and Radio Center (ETRC) until 1958, then the National Educational Television and Radio Center (NETRC) until 1963. Predecessor to PBS.
  • NBC Weather Plus – A weather-oriented digital multicast network owned by NBC Universal, which operated from November 15, 2004 to December 31, 2008; some affiliates subsequently replaced the service with an automated local weather channel under the brand NBC Plus.
  • Network One (N1) – A small independent network featuring a mix of acquired and first-run programming, which operated from the mid-1990s to November 13, 1997.
  • NTA Film Network – A project that flourished from 1956–1962, with anchor station WNTA in New York/Newark, gaining at its height over 100 affiliates, and drawing in the larger markets some of the stations that had lost their Dumont and/or Paramount Television Network affiliation with the cessation of those networks; a few series moved directly from Dumont to NTA in 1956. Only attempted in-pattern broadcasting nationally in one season, on one night, but had some notable programming. Continued as purely a syndicator throughout the 1960s.
  • Overmyer Network (ON; launched as the United Network, not to be confused with UPN) – A short-lived commercial network, which operated from May 1 to June 1, 1967.
  • Paramount Television Network – A commercial broadcast network owned by Paramount Pictures, which operated from 1949 to 1953; most of its partner stations were also affiliates of major broadcast networks, relegating it to secondary affiliations in most markets.
  • PBJ – A digital multicast network from Luken Communications that featured classic cartoons and children's programming that was in operation from August 2011 until March 2016.
  • PBS Kids (original network) – A digital multicast network operated by PBS, which operated from 1999 to 2005; some of its functions were assumed by the advertiser-supported cable network PBS Kids Sprout, while some of PBS' member stations and state networks carry independently programmed digital subchannels featuring children's programs produced for broadcast on the network and through public television syndication. PBS originally planned to launch a successor service, PBS Kids Go!, in October 2006, which never launched. The PBS Kids name remains in use as the branding for PBS' children's programming block.
  • PBS YOU ("YOU" being an acronym for "Your Own University") – A public television network featuring a mix of instructional, news/commentary and documentary programs, which operated from the late 1990s to 2006. Many of its affiliates joined Create, a similar service from American Public Television that focuses more on craft and travel programming, after YOU ceased operations.
  • PTL Satellite Network – An Evangelical Christian religious network founded by Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker, which operated from 1977 to 1987; it was known for its flagship program, the PTL Club. The network collapsed in the wake of a sex and embezzlement scandal that resulted in Jim Bakker being sentenced to prison.
  • Prime Time Entertainment Network (PTEN) – An ad-hoc syndication service operated by the Prime Time Consortium, a joint venture between Warner Bros. Television and Chris-Craft Industries, in conjunction with the service's affiliates, which operated from September 1993 to September 1997; most of PTEN's affiliates would join The WB and UPN when those networks launched in January 1995, with stations subsequently pushing its programming to other timeslots not programmed by The WB and UPN.
  • Qubo: A children's network owned and operated by Ion Media, running from January 8, 2007 to February 28, 2021
  • Retro Jams – A digital multicast music video network, which operated from 2007 to 2008; it was carried by some low-power stations owned by Equity Media Holdings, most of which replaced it with the Retro Television Network; the music video format reappeared in 2009 after Equity terminated its affiliation agreements with RTN.
  • SFM Holiday Network – A limited-run ad-hoc network that specialized in Christmas specials.
  • Shop at Home Network – A home shopping network available on broadcast and cable television, which operated from 1987 to 2008; its broadcast affiliates were a mix of stations that carried the network full-time as well as overnight clearances on minor network affiliates and independent stations.
  • SOI TV – A small Spanish-language network, which operated from March 2012 to January 2013. Launched with a $20 million investment, it was founded by a Venezuelan banker and former political prisoner under that country's president Hugo Chávez, who was granted asylum in the U.S.; the network used interactive broadcast technologies allowing real-time response by viewers regarding its television content via Twitter and Facebook. SOI's programming was carried by cable network La Familia beginning in December 2012;[30] while NBCUniversal owned Telemundo stations formerly carried the network on their digital subchannels until January 2013.[31]
  • Spanish International Network (SIN) – A Spanish-language commercial network, which operated from 1961 to 1986; it is a predecessor to Univision.
  • Star Television Network – This classic television network was in planning as early as 1987 and launch in 1990 then folded in 1991.[32]
  • The Tube Music Network – A music video-focused digital multicast network, which operated from 2004 to October 2007, when it folded due to financial difficulties and complications involving E/I programming.
  • ThinkBright – A New York-based public broadcasting network.
  • TouchVision – TouchVision was a digital multicast and broadband television network owned by Think Televisual, LLC; launched on September 16, 2013 with backing from Weigel Broadcasting which was discontinued on January 14, 2016. It featured blocks of national and international news content presented in a newsreel-style format, along with opinion and feature segments. TouchVision's programming was also syndicated to television stations in a few markets as a substitute for national morning or evening newscasts, carried as a morning programming block on Heroes & Icons.
  • TuVisión – A Spanish-language commercial network owned by Pappas Telecasting Companies, which operated from 2007 to 2009.
  • TV Scout – A network containing a Prevue Channel-esque scroll of all program listings in the next two hours on a market's entire television dial, including digital subchannel networks. Existed from 2012 until 2016.
  • TVS Television Network – A sports programming syndication service, which had its peak years in the 1960s and 1970s. It continued to provide limited programming from then on until the company ceased operations in 2012.
  • UPN (formerly an initialism for the "United Paramount Network") – A conventional general entertainment network originally owned by Viacom and Chris-Craft Industries (whose interest was acquired by Viacom in 2000, and was later spun off to CBS Corporation in 2005); operating from January 16, 1995 to September 15, 2006, CBS Corporation shut down the network to form The CW, in conjunction with The WB's co-parent Time Warner.
  • Universal Sports (formerly World Championship Sports Network) – A digital multicast network offering sports programming, consisting mainly of events sanctioned for play in the Olympic Games, which operated from 2005 to December 31, 2011; at its peak, it had 56 subchannel-only affiliates (including all of NBC's owned-and-operated stations). Universal Sports transitioned into a cable and satellite-only channel on January 1, 2012. It ceased operations on November 16, 2015.[33]
  • Urban America Television (UATV) – A successor to the American Independent Network, which operated from December 3, 2001 to May 1, 2006. UATV was a small network with approximately 60 affiliates at its peak, carrying a mix of original programming, and older films and series.
  • Variety Television Network – A digital multicast network owned by Newport Television, whose stations served as its affiliates, which operated from 2007 to January 2009.
  • The WB – A conventional general entertainment network owned by Time Warner and the Tribune Company that operated from January 11, 1995 to September 17, 2006; Time Warner shut down the network to form The CW, in conjunction with UPN parent CBS Corporation.
  • The Works – A news and general entertainment network from MGM Television that launched on April 1, 2014 and aired mostly on stations owned by Titan Broadcast Group. The network closed on February 28, 2017 with the launch of Charge! which replaced it.
  • Tuff TV – A digital broadcast television network owned by Seals Entertainment Group and Luken Communications LLC. The network shut down on August 26, 2018
  • The Worship Network – A Christian Nature Music video television network owned by Christian Network, Inc. The network shut down in 2013.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Nielsen Estimates 118.4 Million TV Homes in the U.S. for the 2016-17 TV Season". www.nielsen.com.
  2. ^ abcAlthough CBS and NBC were founded in 1926 and 1927, respectively and ABC was founded in 1943, those companies did not begin continuous over the air TV broadcasting until 1939 (NBC), 1941 (CBS) and 1948 (ABC).
  3. ^ abDuMont's relationship with the Fox network via Metromedia is disputed, with Fox being either a modern re-incarnation, or at least a linear descendant of the DuMont Television Network (via former DuMont subsidiary Metromedia) according to radio personality Clarke Ingram.
  4. ^ abOn January 24, 2006, CBS and Time Warner announced the merger of The WB and UPN, forming one larger network, The CW in late 2006. See The CW for more information. The CW and MyNetworkTV are also carried on cable-only channels and digital subchannels of many currently operating television stations of several different affiliations, ranging from current WB and Fox affiliates, to even NBC and CBS affiliates. The WB and UPN shut down on September 18, 2006 to merge into The CW. MyNetworkTV was created by the Fox Broadcasting Company to give programming to several Fox-owned UPN affiliates, upon the shutdown of UPN. MyNetworkTV transitioned from a commercial network to a syndication service in 2009.
  5. ^Although PBS was initially established in 1969, it assumed full-time broadcasts on October 5, 1970 to replace its predecessor, National Educational Television (NET).
  6. ^"'The Walking Dead' Sets Broadcast Syndication Pact with MyNetwork TV".
  7. ^ abNetwork founded by Lowell "Bud" Paxson
  8. ^Jewelry Television has around three direct affiliates; most other stations carrying its programming are indirectly affiliated with the network through Shop at Home.
  9. ^Prior to its shutdown in 2008, Shop at Home only broadcast its programming overnights, and thus full-time affiliates of the network carried Jewelry Television during the daytime hours.
  10. ^"The Top 25 Digital Broadcast Networks". tvnewscheck.com. NewsCheckMedia. June 17, 2014. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  11. ^"Stations for Network – AMG TV". RabbitEars.Info. SatelliteGuys. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  12. ^Date at which the Spanish International Network (founded in 1962) was reorganized and became Univision.
  13. ^Univision. "Univision Network". Univision Corporate. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  14. ^NetSpan (founded in 1984) was reorganized and became Telemundo continental U.S. network.
  15. ^UniMás was originally launched as Telefutura in January 2002, before rebranding under its current name in January 2013.
  16. ^Univision. "UniMás Network". Univision Corporate. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  17. ^ abcdThese networks are carried only on the digital subchannels of local TBN affiliates, and are owned by TBN.
  18. ^JCTV is carried on some analogue and digital television stations, digital subchannels of local Trinity Broadcast Network affiliates, and cable/satellite providers, while Smile of a Child and TBN Enlace USA are carried only on local TBN affiliates. All four networks are owned by TBN.
  19. ^Cornerstone Television is not considered a television network in the traditional definition, rather it is a distributor of in-house produced programming. Although the main station, WPCB-TV in Pittsburgh is carried on many owned-and-operatedtranslators, its full-power and LPTV "affiliates" typically air one or two Cornerstone-produced programs per week scheduled at different times than on WPCB and do not identify themselves as "Cornerstone Television" affiliates.
  20. ^Although Cornerstone Television was founded in 1970, the network did not begin even limited broadcasts until 1979.
  21. ^Date at which WHTV acquired two additional stations. World Harvest Television is a product of LeSea Broadcasting.
  22. ^Sara Bibel (May 21, 2013). "Season-to-Date: Univision Increases Total Viewers, While ABC, Fox and NBC Decline". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  23. ^"Exitos is NBCUniversal Largest Subchannel Network – Subchannel Report". Across Platforms. Archived from the original on 2015-01-20.
  24. ^Michael Insalaco. "22 Spanish Networks Are On Full-Power Subchannels – Subchannel Report". Across Platforms. Archived from the original on 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2013-10-07. Report data posted here.
  25. ^Diana Marszalek (December 1, 2014). "Telemundo Stations Debut Classic TV Diginet". TVNewsCheck. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  26. ^https://www.wlmb.com/radianttv/
  27. ^https://radianttv.com/about/
  28. ^https://radianttv.com/wheretowatch/
  29. ^"Here's How to Keep Watching MHz Worldview Programming After March 1st | MHz Networks". 2020-02-01. Archived from the original on 2020-02-01. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  30. ^Michael Kokernak. "La Familia cable network to nest SOI TV programming". Across Platforms. Archived from the original on 2014-04-16.
  31. ^"Programming Reports – SOI TV". Comcast. Archived from the original on 2013-09-01. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
  32. ^Strother, Susan G. (January 17, 1991). "Tv Network Signs Off – Out Of Cash". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  33. ^"Universal Sports TV Channel Slated To Shut Down Next Month". www.sportsbusinessdaily.com.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_over-the-air_television_networks

What Channels Can You Get

Last updated: Tuesday, February 23, 2021

Many people ask what channels can I get when I don’t have cable or a satellite dish. There are many free broadcast television channels available. It all depends on where you live. Broadcast television is sent over powerful antennas that are broadcast to your home. Then you’re over the air antenna and the TV tuner transcodes the signal. In this post, I will share some resources you can use to find what is on and available in your area.

The first option is to use our station locator tool to see what channels are available in your area.

TV Station Locator Tool

Major Channels and Substations

Most people will be able to receive all of the major networks.

  • ABC
  • NBC
  • CBS
  • FOX
  • PBS
  • CW
  • UPN

There are also a host of substations that are available.

  • PBS World
  • PBS Create
  • PBS Kids
  • Decades
  • MeTV
  • Escape
  • Court TV
  • This TV
  • Retro TV
  • Comet
  • Bounce
  • Cozi TV
  • ION
  • QVC
  • HSN
  • Laff
  • TBD
  • Grit
  • My TV
  • Comet
  • Charge
  • DayStar
  • Get TV
  • Qubo
  • Buzzr
  • LATN
  • Heroes & Icons

*All of these subchannels are identified with a decimal point. Like channels 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and so on. Receiving all of these channels will depend on your antenna placement and how far away you are from the broadcast towers.

Rescan Your Television Channels

Once you have your’re over the air antenna setup it is time to find some stations. Since I have made the switch to broadcast television many new channels have become available. More channels are scheduled in the future. So it is always a good idea to hit the rescan option on your television from time to time. This will allow your TV to update the new channels. To find your channel scan options, check the menu on your television. It may take a few minutes to rescan the channels.

How to Rescan Your Television

Online Tools and Resources for Broadcast Television

Trying to find what is on TV can be made easy with some of these websites and apps.

Titian TV

Titian TV is one of the best. It allows you to enter your zip code and will give you the available channels in your area. You can also see what is on television. Here is an example of all the channels that I receive in my area which are quite a few. Click the image to view listings.

Yahoo TV Listings

Yahoo Zap2it also has a nice TV listings feature that allows you to view broadcast listings in your area. Just click on change my location and enter your zip code. Then select broadcast (antenna) at the bottom of the box.

Yahoo TV Listings

TV Guide

Looking for a great app for your smartphone to check listings for broadcast television? TV Guide has a good one. It is easy to install. Just type in your zip code and the broadcast area. There are no accounts to create.

TV Guide App

Apple App Store \ Google Play Store

TV Listings by TV2‪4

TV Listings is another good app for your phone. It is easy to navigate, setup, and has a very clean interface. Just enter your zip code and select broadcast television. It will give the channel listings in your area.

TV Listings App

Apple App Store \ Google Play Store

Need help choosing an antenna. Click on our guide below:

how to choose an hd antenna guide

Conclusion

Finding out what is on broadcast television can be made easy with some of these resources. Knowing you are watching TV for free is priceless. If you have any suggestions feel free to comment.

Image courtesy of Salvatore Vuono at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Find the right antenna for you! Click to enter your zip code and see how you can watch HDTV for free!

antenna channels, OTA channels, OTA TV listings, what channels can I get with OTA

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New frequency since 9/06/2021

High Definition

CNBC HD
Astra 2F
DVB-S2
8PSK
12168 V
27500 2/3

New frequency since 13/07/2021

High Definition

CNBC HD
Astra 1N
DVB-S2
QPSK
12070 H
27500 9/10

New frequency since 10/11/2020

High Definition

CNBC HD
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
QPSK
12054 H
29900 5/6

Feed

DAD 5 - FT-12
15° O
Telstar 12 VANTAGE
DVB-S2
8PSK
12589 H
3400 3/4

Bloomberg TV logoBloomberg TV

International English language business news television channel.

United States Flagge
United States

High Definition

Bloomberg HD
Astra 2G
DVB-S2
8PSK
11686 V
23000 2/3

Bloomberg Europe TV
Astra 1L
11597 V
22000 5/6

Bloomberg European TV
Hot Bird 13E
11137 H
27500 3/4

Left 01/05/2015

Bloomberg
7° O
Nilesat 201
11977 V
27500 5/6

Left 30/09/2020

Bloomberg
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11785 H
27500 2/3

Nasa TV logoNasa TV

United States Flagge
United StatesXX



Ultra HD

Nasa TV UHD
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
10727 H
30000 3/4

* * *

High Definition

NASA TV HD
Hot Bird 13C
DVB-S2
8PSK
11373 H
27500 3/4

Since 23/09/2020



Ultra HD

NASA
1° O
Intelsat 10-02
DVB-S2
8PSK
12705 V
45000 3/4

Since 10/02/2021. Video in HEVC. Encrypted since 17/03/2021.

High Definition

NASA TV HD
1,9° E
BulgariaSat-1
DVB-S2
8PSK
12073 H
30000 2/3

New frequency since 1/05/2021



Ultra HD

NASA TV UHD
1° O
Thor 7
DVB-S2
8PSK
12360 H
30000 3/4

4K HERiTAGE logo4K HERiTAGE

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Since 30/10/2020. Left 7/07/2021.



Ultra HD

4K-HERiTAGE
1° O
Intelsat 10-02
DVB-S2
8PSK
12705 V
45000 3/4

VOA Voice of America logoVOA Voice of America

ScheduleUnited States Flagge
United StatesXX

High Definition

VOA EU HD ch100
Hot Bird 13B
12226 V
27500 3/4

Left 28/01/2021

VOA 24
7,3° O
Eutelsat 7 West A
12398 V
27500 5/6

ESports Revolution logoESports Revolution

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Since 2/02/2021

High Definition

ESports Revolution
Hot Bird 13C
DVB-S2
8PSK
10930 H
30000 2/3

X

NBC logoNBC

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Feed

DAD 4 - FT-11
15° O
Telstar 12 VANTAGE
DVB-S2
8PSK
12589 H
3400 3/4

Discovery MENA logoDiscovery MENA

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Since 1/06/2021. Left 6/06/2021.

High Definition

Discovery
Hot Bird 13C
DVB-S2
8PSK
11747 H
27500 3/4

X

Court TV logoCourt TV

United States Flagge
United States

Since 25/08/2020

Court TV
Astra 2G
11568 V
22000 5/6

XXX

Smithsonian TV logoSmithsonian TV

United States Flagge
United States

New frequency since 27/01/2021

Smithsonian
Astra 2G
11464 H
22000 5/6

* * *

New frequency since 12/02/2020

High Definition

Smithsonian HD
Astra 2G
DVB-S2
8PSK
11509 V
23000 2/3

XXX

PBS America logoPBS America

PBS America is a new factual channel from America’s Public Broadcasting Service. As well as bringing viewers historical and current affairs programming, the channel will also captivate audiences with powerful films such as Spy at the Hanoi Hilton and the Oscar-nominated Last Days in Vietnam.

United States Flagge
United States

New frequency since 12/02/2021

PBS America
Astra 2F
11344 V
27500 5/6

XXX

Daystar TV Network logoDaystar TV Network

United States Flagge
United States

High Definition

DAYSTAR HD
Astra 2G
DVB-S2
8PSK
11686 V
23000 2/3

Left 21/03/2013

Daystar Television Network
Astra 1M EU
12461 H
27500 3/4

High Definition

DAYSTAR HD
Hot Bird 13E
DVB-S2
8PSK
11642 H
27500 3/4

X

The Word Network logoThe Word Network

United States Flagge
United States

Word Network
Astra 2G
11538 V
22000 5/6

X

The Word Network
Hot Bird 13E
10815 H
27500 5/6

Left 01/03/2020

The Word Network
3° O
ABS-3A
10720 H
10000 1/2

Left 5/04/2020

THE WORD NETWORK
7,3° O
Eutelsat 7 West A
10872 V
27500 7/8

THE WORD NETWORK
97° O
Galaxy 19
11842 H
22000 3/4

TBN Europe logoTBN Europe

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Since 1/09/2019

High Definition

TBN Europe HD
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
12303 V
27500 3/4

X

Hillsong (Church Channel) logoHillsong (Church Channel)

United States Flagge
United States

Hillsong
Astra 2G
11082 H
22000 5/6

X

New frequency since 05/09/2018

Hillsong
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
12303 V
27500 3/4

Church Channel
97° O
Galaxy 19
12053 V
22000 3/4

Inspiration Network logoInspiration Network

ScheduleUnited States Flagge
United States

Inspiration TV
Astra 2G
11082 H
22000 5/6

X

Left 1/10/2015

Inspirational TV
Hot Bird 13C
11334 H
27500 3/4

Left 2/03/2015

InspirationalTV
7° E
Eutelsat 7B
10721 V
27500 3/4

Gospel Channel logoGospel Channel

Religious Christian television channel.

ScheduleUnited States Flagge
United States

Left 7/03/2020

Gospel Channel
Astra 2G
11596 V
22000 5/6

XX

Gospel Channel Europe
1° O
Thor 5
11357 H
24500 7/8

TBN UK logoTBN UK

TBN: Trinity Broadcasting Network

United States Flagge
United States

TBN UK
Astra 2G
11265 V
27500 2/3

XXX

SBN International logoSBN International

Sonlife Broadcasting Network

United States Flagge
United StatesX

Sonlife Broadcasting Network
Astra 1L
11597 V
22000 5/6

Sonlife
Hot Bird 13C
11334 H
27500 3/4

Left 01/03/2020

SBN International
3° O
ABS-3A
10720 H
10000 1/2

Supreme Master TV logoSupreme Master TV

Supreme Master Ching Hai television channel.

United States Flagge
United States

Left 06/01/2012

SupremeMastr
Eutelsat 28A (Eurobird 1)
11585 H
27500 2/3

X

Left 6/01/2012

Supreme Master TV
Hot Bird 13E
12558 V
27500 3/4

Left 6/01/2012

Supreme Master TV
30° O
Hispasat 1C
11972 V
27500 3/4

Since 6/05/2020

SMTV
7,3° O
Eutelsat 7 West A
11603 H
27501 5/6

Supreme Master TV
97° O
Galaxy 19
11960 V
22000 5/6

BYU Television logoBYU Television

ScheduleUnited States Flagge
United StatesXX

Since 1/04/2021. Left 9/05/2021.

Church Of Jesus Christ
Hot Bird 13C
DVB-S2
8PSK
12577 H
27500 3/4

High Definition

EU: Eng - Ger
15° O
Telstar 12 VANTAGE
DVB-S2
8PSK
11568 H
2678 2/3

3ABN Internacional (Three Angels Broadcasting Network) logo3ABN Internacional (Three Angels Broadcasting Network)

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Left 26/11/2018

3ABN International TV
Hot Bird 13C
11316 V
27500 3/4

3ABN English TV
97° O
Galaxy 19
11842 H
22000 3/4

AFN Sports logoAFN Sports

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|sports
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Prime Atlantic logoAFN Prime Atlantic

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|prime Atlantic
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Spectrum logoAFN Spectrum

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|spectrum
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Prime Pacific logoAFN Prime Pacific

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|prime Pacific
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN News logoAFN News

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|news
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Sports 2 logoAFN Sports 2

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|sports 2
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Family logoAFN Family

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|family
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

AFN Movie logoAFN Movie

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

720p 60fps. Temporary FTA since 15/02/2021. Encrypted since 16/02/2021.

High Definition

AFN|movie
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

Gametoon logoGametoon

Gaming channel.

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Since 11/02/2021. Video in HEVC. Encrypted since 5/03/2021.

High Definition

Gametoon HD
1,9° E
BulgariaSat-1
DVB-S2
8PSK
12169 V
30000 2/3

Fast Funbox logoFast Funbox

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Temporary FTA since 6/10/2020. Identified as encrypted. Video in HEVC. Encrypted since 17/03/2021.

High Definition

Fast and FunBox HD
1,9° E
BulgariaSat-1
DVB-S2
8PSK
12073 H
30000 2/3

Fashion 4K logoFashion 4K

Fashion One 4K
Fashion One Ultra HD.

United States Flagge
United StatesX

Encrypted since 19/11/2019



Ultra HD

Fashion 4K
Astra 1L
DVB-S2
8PSK
11111 H
22000 2/3

X

Since 9/04/2020. Left 7/09/2020.



Ultra HD

Fashion 4K
16° E
Eutelsat 16A
DVB-S2
8PSK
11595 V
30000 5/6

History Europe logoHistory Europe

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Since 22/12/2019. Temporary FTA. Encrypted since 12/01/2021.

History Europe
1° O
Thor 5
12418 V
28000 7/8

Crime & Investigation logoCrime & Investigation

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Since 22/12/2019. Temporary FTA. Encrypted since 12/01/2021.

Crime + Investigation Europe
1° O
Thor 5
12418 V
28000 7/8

JUCE TV logoJUCE TV

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Left 1/09/2019

JCTV
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
12303 V
27500 3/4

X

History România logoHistory România

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Since 22/12/2019. Temporary FTA. Left 2/06/2020.

High Definition

History Romania HD
1° O
Thor 5
12418 V
28000 7/8

Fashion One logoFashion One

United States Flagge
United States

Left 26/01/2017

Fashion One
Astra 2G
DVB-S2
8PSK
11686 V
23000 2/3

Left 02/03/2015

Fashion One
Astra 1KR
11421 H
22000 5/6

Left 11/05/2020

Fashion One
Hot Bird 13E
10815 H
27500 5/6

Left 04/11/2016

Fashion One
8° O
Eutelsat 8 West B
12604 H
27500 5/6

High Definition

Fashion Television
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
11919 V
27500 3/4

Left 30/10/2018



Ultra HD

Fashion One 4K
52° E
TürkmenÄlem (MonacoSat)
DVB-S2
8PSK
12456 V
27500 2/3

Left 8/06/2020

Fashion One
52,5° E
Yahsat 1A
DVB-S2
QPSK
11977 H
27500 8/9

MSNBC logoMSNBC

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Left 15/05/2020

FT-06 SD MSNBC INTL SAT
15° O
Telstar 12 VANTAGE
12585 H
3198 7/8

CBNN

United States Flagge
United StatesX

Since 3/02/2020. Left 1/05/2020.

High Definition

CBNN
Astra 1L
DVB-S2
8PSK
11288 V
22000 2/3

XX

4K Universe logo4K Universe

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Since 2/08/2019. Encrypted since 4/11/2019.



Ultra HD

4K Universe
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
10727 H
30000 3/4

X

Smile of a Child logoSmile of a Child

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Left 21/09/2018

Smile of a Child
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
12303 V
27500 3/4

X

Hope Channel logoHope Channel

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Left 26/11/2018

HC International
Hot Bird 13C
11316 V
27500 3/4

X

Baby First TV logoBaby First TV

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Left 07/06/2018

BFTV EU
30° O
Hispasat 30W-5 (Hispasat 1E)
DVB-S2
8PSK
10730 H
27500 3/4

FunBox 4K logoFunBox 4K

United States Flagge
United StatesXX

Encrypted since 30/01/2017. Left 27/05/2019.



Ultra HD

FunBox 4K
Hot Bird 13B
DVB-S2
8PSK
10727 H
30000 3/4

X

Pentagon Channel logoPentagon Channel

ScheduleUnited States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Left 05/08/2014

Pentagon Channel
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
DVB-S2
8PSK
11804 V
27500 2/3

Apostolic Oneness Network

United States Flagge
United StatesXXX

Left 16/02/2016

Apostolic Oneness Network
9° E
Eutelsat 9B
11823 H
27500 3/4
Sours: https://en.satexpat.com/tv/usa/
FREE TO AIR SATELLITE TV CHANNELS ON KU BAND FTA

Free to Air TV Channels in USA

Channel NamePositionSatellite1Alhurra TV75.0°EABS 22Bloomberg TV Asia75.0°EABS 23H2 Asia75.0°EABS 24Hope Channel Philippines75.0°EABS 25Outdoor Channel International75.0°EABS 26C-SPAN131.0°WAMC 117NASA TV Education105.0°WAMC 188NASA TV Media105.0°WAMC 189NASA TV Public105.0°WAMC 1810Create124.9°WAMC 2111FNX124.9°WAMC 2112Montana PBS124.9°WAMC 2113OETA124.9°WAMC 2114OETA Create124.9°WAMC 2115OETA Kids124.9°WAMC 2116V me124.9°WAMC 2117World124.9°WAMC 2118Cutlery Corner Network83.0°WAMC 919FGO83.0°WAMC 920Heartland East83.0°WAMC 921Heartland West83.0°WAMC 922KRXI-DT 283.0°WAMC 923Pennsylvania Cable Network83.0°WAMC 924Rev’n TV83.0°WAMC 925Tuff TV West83.0°WAMC 926WAOH-LP83.0°WAMC 927WBNA-DT 483.0°WAMC 928WFMZ-DT 483.0°WAMC 929WGMU-CA83.0°WAMC 930WLLA-DT 283.0°WAMC 931WMEI-TV83.0°WAMC 932WNWO-DT 283.0°WAMC 933WPSD-DT 283.0°WAMC 934WPXS-TV83.0°WAMC 935WSET-DT 283.0°WAMC 936WSMV-DT 283.0°WAMC 937JuCe TV Rossiya4.0°WAmos 238SBN Global4.0°WAmos 239Ukraïna 244.0°WAmos 240Rodnoy Shalom4.0°WAmos 341VSEN Henrico111.1°WAnik F242VSEN Varina111.1°WAnik F243VSEN Wise111.1°WAnik F244KUKC-TV118.8°WAnik F345WUMN-TV118.8°WAnik F346WUVF-TV118.8°WAnik F347Apostolic Oneness Network76.5°EApstar 748AXN Philippines76.5°EApstar 749BabyFirst TV76.5°EApstar 750Jesus Christ TV Pakistan76.5°EApstar 751NASA TV UHD122.2°EAsiaSat 452Bloomberg TV India100.5°EAsiaSat 553Fuel TV100.5°EAsiaSat 554GCN Korea100.5°EAsiaSat 555American Embassy TV Network105.5°EAsiaSat 756Cartoon Network Philippines105.5°EAsiaSat 757VoA TV Africa105.5°EAsiaSat 758VoA TV Asia105.5°EAsiaSat 759VoA TV Persian105.5°EAsiaSat 760Hope Channel Deutsch19.2°EAstra 1KR61QVC Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1KR62QVC Plus Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1KR63CNBC Europe19.2°EAstra 1L64QVC Beauty & Style19.2°EAstra 1L65TBN España19.2°EAstra 1L66TV Shop Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1L67Comedy Central Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1M68Disney Channel Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1M69DMAX Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1M70EWTN Katholisches Fernsehen19.2°EAstra 1M71Nickelodeon Deutschland19.2°EAstra 1M72TLC Germany19.2°EAstra 1M73Comedy Central Austria19.2°EAstra 1N74DMAX Austria19.2°EAstra 1N75Nickelodeon Austria19.2°EAstra 1N76Bloomberg TV Europe28.5°EAstra 2E77Dunya News USA28.5°EAstra 2E78Food Network UK28.5°EAstra 2E79Food Network UK +128.5°EAstra 2E80Gems TV28.5°EAstra 2E81PBS America28.5°EAstra 2E82QVC Beauty28.5°EAstra 2E83QVC Extra28.5°EAstra 2E84QVC Style28.5°EAstra 2E85QVC UK28.5°EAstra 2E86Tru TV UK +128.5°EAstra 2E87CBS Action UK28.2°EAstra 2F88CBS Drama UK28.2°EAstra 2F89CBS Reality UK28.2°EAstra 2F90CBS Reality UK +128.2°EAstra 2F91BET International28.2°EAstra 2G92CNBC UK28.2°EAstra 2G93EWTN UK & Ireland28.2°EAstra 2G94GR Shop28.2°EAstra 2G95Spike UK28.2°EAstra 2G96TBN UK28.2°EAstra 2G97Thane28.2°EAstra 2G98Travel Channel UK28.2°EAstra 2G99Travel Channel UK +128.2°EAstra 2G100Tru TV UK28.2°EAstra 2G101Telekanal Nadiya4.8°EAstra 4A102CNBC Arabiya26.0°EBadr 4103Quest Arabiya26.0°EBadr 4104Cartoon Network Arabic26.0°EBadr 6105Biz TV121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23106Canal Sur121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23107Centroamérica TV121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23108Estudio 5121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23109EWTN US121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23110Gem Shopping Network121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23111God TV United States121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23112HITN121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23113Jewish Life TV121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23114Liquidation Channel121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23115México TV121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23116On TV 4U121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23117Pasiones Estados Unidos121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23118Sur Perú121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23119The California Channel121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23120TV Dominicana121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23121V me Kids121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23122Willow121.0°WEchoStar 9/Galaxy 23123G&E113.0°WEutelsat 113 West A124Tele Restauración113.0°WEutelsat 113 West A125Tele Vida Abundante116.8°WEutelsat 117 West A126TeLe-Romántica116.8°WEutelsat 117 West A127DMAX Italia12.5°WEutelsat 12 West B128MTV Music Italia12.5°WEutelsat 12 West B129Paramount Channel Italia12.5°WEutelsat 12 West B130Cartoonito Italia5.0°WEutelsat 5 West A131CYC7.3°WEutelsat 7 West A132OBS7.3°WEutelsat 7 West A133OMN TV7.3°WEutelsat 7 West A134UNRWA TV7.3°WEutelsat 7 West A135VoA Africa 247.3°WEutelsat 7 West A136Iranefarda TV7.0°EEutelsat 7A137Hope Channel Zambia7.0°EEutelsat 7B138Omid-e-Iran7.0°EEutelsat 7B139Rangarang TV Network7.0°EEutelsat 7B140Ahl-E-Bait TV Arabic8.0°WEutelsat 8 West B141Al-Mahdi TV8.0°WEutelsat 8 West B142Logos TV8.0°WEutelsat 8 West B143Ahl-E-Bait TV Farsi13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B144Al Waad Channel13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B145Alhurra TV Europe13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B146Ariana Afghanistan TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B147Channel One13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B148GünAz TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B149Iran e Aryaee TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B150Mohabat TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B151Nejat TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B152New Channel TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B153Pars TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B154Payam-e-Afghan TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B155QVC Italia13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B156Real Time13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B157Seven13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B158TBN Europe13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B159TCI13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B160VoA TV Europe13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13B161ABN Europe & ME13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13C162ANB13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13C163Class Horse TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13C164Ganj e Hozour TV13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13C165FunBox 4K13.0°EEutelsat Hot Bird 13E166RTR Planeta USA11.0°WExpress AM44167Reelz127.0°WGalaxy 13/Horizons 1168Evine Live125.0°WGalaxy 14169Gospel Broadcasting Network125.0°WGalaxy 14170Link TV125.0°WGalaxy 14171MC Play125.0°WGalaxy 14172North West Cable News125.0°WGalaxy 14173EWTN Canada133.0°WGalaxy 15174EWTN EEUU133.0°WGalaxy 15175EWTN España Latinoamérica133.0°WGalaxy 15176NBC Universo Oeste133.0°WGalaxy 15177Classical MPR99.0°WGalaxy 16178Colorado Public Radio Classical99.0°WGalaxy 16179Colorado Public Radio News99.0°WGalaxy 16180Colorado Public Radio OpenAir99.0°WGalaxy 16181Cornerstone TV99.0°WGalaxy 16182Cozi TV99.0°WGalaxy 16183JBS99.0°WGalaxy 16184KCHF-TV99.0°WGalaxy 16185KNLC-TV99.0°WGalaxy 16186KRBK-TV99.0°WGalaxy 16187KWHB-TV99.0°WGalaxy 16188KWHE-TV99.0°WGalaxy 16189KWHS-LP99.0°WGalaxy 16190Live Well Network East99.0°WGalaxy 16191Live Well Network West99.0°WGalaxy 16192Living Faith TV99.0°WGalaxy 16193MeTV Ozarks99.0°WGalaxy 16194Movies!99.0°WGalaxy 16195MPR News99.0°WGalaxy 16196NPR Classical Music99.0°WGalaxy 16197NPR News99.0°WGalaxy 16198Shepherd’s Chapel99.0°WGalaxy 16199The Current99.0°WGalaxy 16200World Harvest TV99.0°WGalaxy 16201World Harvest TV DirecTV99.0°WGalaxy 16202WPRU-LP99.0°WGalaxy 16203WSJP-LP99.0°WGalaxy 16204WSJX-LP/WVXF-DT 299.0°WGalaxy 16205WVGN-LP99.0°WGalaxy 16206ABC News One Live Channel 191.0°WGalaxy 17207ABC News One Live Channel 291.0°WGalaxy 17208BYU TV91.0°WGalaxy 17209Classic Arts Showcase91.0°WGalaxy 17210KLUZ-TV91.0°WGalaxy 17211TCT91.0°WGalaxy 17212TCT HD91.0°WGalaxy 17213TCT Kids91.0°WGalaxy 17214TVW Cable Channel123.0°WGalaxy 18215University of Washington TV123.0°WGalaxy 182163ABN English97.0°WGalaxy 192173ABN Proclaim97.0°WGalaxy 19218AABC TV97.0°WGalaxy 19219Al Kalema TV97.0°WGalaxy 19220Alkarma TV North America97.0°WGalaxy 19221Almas TV97.0°WGalaxy 19222Almukhales TV97.0°WGalaxy 19223Amazing Facts TV97.0°WGalaxy 19224AMG TV97.0°WGalaxy 19225Appadana International97.0°WGalaxy 19226Asre Emrooz TV97.0°WGalaxy 19227AssyriaSat97.0°WGalaxy 19228Automotive TV97.0°WGalaxy 19229Azteca US Este97.0°WGalaxy 19230Azteca US Pacífico97.0°WGalaxy 19231Bounce97.0°WGalaxy 19232Buzzr97.0°WGalaxy 19233BYU TV North America97.0°WGalaxy 19234C Sat97.0°WGalaxy 19235Dare to Dream Network97.0°WGalaxy 19236Didar Global TV Plus97.0°WGalaxy 19237DirecShop97.0°WGalaxy 19238Divine TV USA97.0°WGalaxy 19239Dr TV97.0°WGalaxy 19240Ebru TV Global97.0°WGalaxy 19241EEENetwork97.0°WGalaxy 19242Escape97.0°WGalaxy 19243Esperanza TV97.0°WGalaxy 19244GCN America97.0°WGalaxy 19245GEM USA97.0°WGalaxy 19246God’s Learning Channel97.0°WGalaxy 19247Good Idea TV97.0°WGalaxy 19248Grit97.0°WGalaxy 19249Guide US TV97.0°WGalaxy 19250Hope Channel97.0°WGalaxy 19251Hope Channel Church97.0°WGalaxy 19252IBC97.0°WGalaxy 19253Iman TV97.0°WGalaxy 19254Impact TV Network97.0°WGalaxy 19255Justice Network97.0°WGalaxy 19256KVLA TV97.0°WGalaxy 19257Laff97.0°WGalaxy 19258Lao Champa TV97.0°WGalaxy 19259Lao-Thai US TV97.0°WGalaxy 19260LATV97.0°WGalaxy 19261LDS Church97.0°WGalaxy 19262Little Saigon TV97.0°WGalaxy 19263LLBN Arabic97.0°WGalaxy 19264LLBN English97.0°WGalaxy 19265LLBN Latino97.0°WGalaxy 19266MEA TV97.0°WGalaxy 19267Micasa Network97.0°WGalaxy 19268MTC97.0°WGalaxy 19269NAT Shopping97.0°WGalaxy 19270OCN97.0°WGalaxy 19271Pan Armenian97.0°WGalaxy 19272Persian Bazaar TV97.0°WGalaxy 19273QVC US97.0°WGalaxy 19274SaBaiDee Lao TV97.0°WGalaxy 19275Saigon TV97.0°WGalaxy 19276Salaam TV97.0°WGalaxy 19277Shant ARTN97.0°WGalaxy 19278Smart LifeStyle TV97.0°WGalaxy 19279TATV97.0°WGalaxy 19280The University Network97.0°WGalaxy 19281The Walk TV97.0°WGalaxy 19282The Way TV97.0°WGalaxy 19283TLA TV 197.0°WGalaxy 19284TLA TV 297.0°WGalaxy 19285Vatan TV97.0°WGalaxy 19286VBS TV97.0°WGalaxy 19287Viet Global Mall TV97.0°WGalaxy 19288Vietface TV97.0°WGalaxy 19289CBN News89.0°WGalaxy 28290Sony Mix93.5°EG-Sat 15291Sony Pal93.5°EG-Sat 15292Sony Wah93.5°EG-Sat 15293360 Tune Box30.0°WHispasat 30W-4294DocuBox HD30.0°WHispasat 30W-4295FashionBox HD30.0°WHispasat 30W-4296Fast & FunBox HD30.0°WHispasat 30W-4297FilmBox Arthouse30.0°WHispasat 30W-4298FilmBox Russia30.0°WHispasat 30W-4299Jewelry TV30.0°WHispasat 30W-4300My Family TV East30.0°WHispasat 30W-4301Newsmax TV30.0°WHispasat 30W-4302Retro TV30.0°WHispasat 30W-4303Tuff TV East30.0°WHispasat 30W-4304CGN TV USA30.0°WHispasat 30W-5305SBN30.0°WHispasat 30W-5306TV Martí30.0°WHispasat 30W-5307Speranta TV1.0°WIntelsat 10-02308Universal Channel América Latina43.1°WIntelsat 11309Bulgarian International TV45.0°EIntelsat 12310CNN International Asia Pacific166.0°EIntelsat 19311Comedy Central Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19312Crime + Investigation Network Australia166.0°EIntelsat 19313ESPN Pacific Rim166.0°EIntelsat 19314EWTN Pacific Rim166.0°EIntelsat 19315Fox Crime Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19316Fox Family Movies166.0°EIntelsat 19317FX Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19318FYI Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19319History Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19320Lifetime Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19321MTV China166.0°EIntelsat 19322MTV South East Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19323Myx USA166.0°EIntelsat 19324Nat Geo Wild Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19325Nickelodeon South East Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19326TBN Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19327Toonami Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19328Warner TV Asia166.0°EIntelsat 19329EWTN Africa & Asia68.5°EIntelsat 20330Hope Channel India68.5°EIntelsat 20331TV Novo Tempo Brasil68.5°EIntelsat 203323ABN Latino58.0°WIntelsat 21333Aliento Vision58.0°WIntelsat 21334CTN International58.0°WIntelsat 21335ESNE TV58.0°WIntelsat 21336Ebru TV Africa72.1°EIntelsat 22337BYU TV International55.5°WIntelsat 34338Cinecanal Centro55.5°WIntelsat 34339Fox Life Latin55.5°WIntelsat 34340Winners Chapel International62.0°EIntelsat 902341Al Masriyah USA24.5°WIntelsat 905342TBN Namibia64.2°EIntelsat 906343VoA TV27.5°WIntelsat 907344GSTV124.0°EJCSAT 4B345QVC Japan124.0°EJCSAT 4B346NTD TV East113.0°EKoreasat 5347Fashion One 4K91.4°EMeasat 3a348Thane Xpress Shop7.0°WNilesat 201349Alhurra TV Iraq57.0°ENSS 12350EBS57.0°ENSS 12351EBS Cinema57.0°ENSS 12352EBS Musika57.0°ENSS 12353AFN Prime Pacific95.0°ENSS 6354Rey de Salem47.5°WNSS 806355BYU TV Global177.0°WNSS 9356Hillsong Channel177.0°WNSS 9357Hope Channel International177.0°WNSS 9358Juce TV177.0°WNSS 9359PBS Kids177.0°WNSS 9360Smile of a Child TV177.0°WNSS 9361TBN US177.0°WNSS 93623ABN International152.0°EOptus D2363ABN152.0°EOptus D2364Al Beshara TV152.0°EOptus D2365Al Horreya TV152.0°EOptus D2366Al-Fady TV152.0°EOptus D2367Alkarma TV Middle East & Australia152.0°EOptus D2368Bible Explorations TV152.0°EOptus D2369Daystar TV152.0°EOptus D2370Inspiration TV152.0°EOptus D2371SBN International152.0°EOptus D2372TBN Pacific152.0°EOptus D2373The Word Network152.0°EOptus D2374Velayat TV Network152.0°EOptus D2375Vietface TV Australia152.0°EOptus D2376Cannella Response TV101.0°WSES 1377Decades101.0°WSES 1378GEB America101.0°WSES 1379Heroes & Icons101.0°WSES 1380Me TV101.0°WSES 1381Mnet America101.0°WSES 1382Revenue Frontier101.0°WSES 1383FETV87.0°WSES 2384FilmOn TV87.0°WSES 2385KILM-TV87.0°WSES 2386KTEL-TV87.0°WSES 2387LPB 287.0°WSES 2388LPB 387.0°WSES 2389LPB HD87.0°WSES 2390My Combat Channel87.0°WSES 2391Patient Channel87.0°WSES 2392Pursuit Channel87.0°WSES 2393The Florida Channel87.0°WSES 2394America’s Auction Network103.0°WSES 3395CTN Lifestyle103.0°WSES 3396HSN103.0°WSES 3397InfoWars103.0°WSES 3398ION Life103.0°WSES 3399ION Plus103.0°WSES 3400ION TV East103.0°WSES 3401ION TV Pacific103.0°WSES 3402ION TV West103.0°WSES 3403NBC Central103.0°WSES 3404NBC East103.0°WSES 3405NBC Mountain103.0°WSES 3406NBC West103.0°WSES 3407PBS East103.0°WSES 3408Qubo103.0°WSES 3409QVC Plus US103.0°WSES 3410Bloomberg TV Brazil40.5°WSES 6411Bloomberg TV Latin America40.5°WSES 6412GSN40.5°WSES 6413High 4K40.5°WSES 6414TV Novo Tempo Rio Grande do Sul40.5°WSES 6415TV Novo Tempo São Paulo40.5°WSES 6416TV Nuevo Tiempo40.5°WSES 6417VoA TV Latin America40.5°WSES 6418Boomerang Thailand95.0°ESES 8419Fashion One Asia95.0°ESES 8420NTD TV Asia-Pacific88.0°EST 2421Hope Channel Indonesia108.0°ETelkom 1422MSNBC International15.0°WTelstar 12 Vantage423Chinese Hope TV138.0°ETelstar 18424Radio Free Asia138.0°ETelstar 18425VoA Asia 24138.0°ETelstar 18426VoA TV China138.0°ETelstar 18427CTN78.5°EThaicom 5428Toonami Thailand78.5°EThaicom 6429Bloomberg HT42.0°ETürksat 3A430Cartoon Network Türkiye42.0°ETürksat 4A431CNN Türk42.0°ETürksat 4A432Disney Channel Türkiye42.0°ETürksat 4A433Fox Türkiye42.0°ETürksat 4A434Lifetime Türkiye42.0°ETürksat 4A435TLC Türkiye42.0°ETürksat 4A436Andisheh TV52.5°EY1A437CNN International Europe52.5°EY1A438Didgah TV52.5°EY1A439Fashion One Europe52.5°EY1A440Merci TV Network52.5°EY1A441National Geographic Channel Abu Dhabi52.5°EY1A442Radio Farda TV52.5°EY1A443Royal Time TV52.5°EY1A444Ti TV Network52.5°EY1A445Tin TV52.5°EY1A446TM TV52.5°EY1A447SBN Russia90.0°EYamal 401448TBN Rossiya90.0°EYamal 401449Tri Angela90.0°EYamal 401
Sours: https://www.trackdish.com/list/free-satellite-tv-usa/

To air channels usa free

Free-to-air

Not to be confused with Free-to-view.

Television and radio broadcasting with clear unencrypted form

Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost, or one-off fee (e.g., pay-per-view). In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial radio signals and received with an antenna.

FTA also refers to channels and broadcasters providing content for which no subscription is expected, even though they may be delivered to the viewer/listener by another carrier for which a subscription is required, e.g., cable television, the Internet, or satellite. These carriers may be mandated (or OPT) in some geographies to deliver FTA channels even if a premium subscription is not present (providing the necessary equipment is still available), especially where FTA channels are expected to be used for emergency broadcasts, similar to the 1-1-2 (112) emergency service provided by mobile phone operators and manufacturers.

On the other side, free-to-view (FTV) is generally available without subscription, but it is digitally encoded and may be restricted geographically.

Free-to-air is often used for international broadcasting, making it something of a video equivalent to shortwave radio. Most FTA retailers list free-to-air channel guides and content available in North America for free-to-air use.

Funding[edit]

Although commonly described as free, the cost of free-to-air services is met through various means:

  • Tax payer funding
  • with an enforced levy of a licence fee for transmission and production costs (e.g., the BBC)
  • with a voluntary donation for local transmission and production costs (e.g., PBS)
  • with commercial advertising for transmission and production costs and surplus revenues returned to the government (e.g., CBC Television/Télévision de Radio-Canada in Canada, SBS in Australia and TVNZ in New Zealand)
  • Commercial sponsorship
  • Consumer products and services where part of the cost goes toward television advertising and sponsorship (in the case of Japanese television broadcasters like TV Asahi and TV Tokyo which rely heavily on sponsorship, similar to Philippine broadcasters like ABS-CBN, TV5 and GMA)

Middle East[edit]

Israel[edit]

Up until 2012, Israel had several free-to-air channels. The major ones rating-wise: Channel 2, Channel 10, and Channel 1. The other ones were: Educational, Channel 33, and Knesset 99.

Since 2018, Israel has several new free-to-air channels that replace their older counterparts. The major ones rating-wise: Channel 12, Channel 13, Kan 11, and Channel 20. The other ones are: Kan Educational, Makan 33, and Knesset Channel.

Africa[edit]

South Africa[edit]

In 1971, the SABC was finally allowed to introduce a television service. Initially, the proposal was for two television channels, one in English and Afrikaans, aimed at white audiences, and another, known as TV Bantu, aimed at black viewers. However, when television was finally introduced, there was only one channel with airtime divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, alternating between the two languages. Test transmissions in Johannesburg began on 5 May 1975, followed in July by ones in Cape Town and Durban. Nationwide services finally commenced on 5 January 1976.

In common with most of Western Europe, South Africa used the PAL system for colour television, being only the second terrestrial television service in sub-Saharan Africa to launch with a colour-only service, Zanzibar in Tanzania having introduced the first such service in 1973. (Tanzania itself did not establish a television service until the early 1990s, similarly concerned about the expense and perceived threat to cultural norms.) The Government, advised by SABC technicians, took the view that colour television would have to be available so as to avoid a costly migration from black-and-white broadcasting technology.

Initially, the TV service was funded entirely through a licence fee as in the UK, charged at R36. However, advertising began on 1 January 1978.

On 1 January 1982, two services were introduced, TV2 broadcasting in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 broadcasting in Sotho and Tswana, aimed at a black urban audience. In 1985, a new service called TV4 was introduced, carrying sports and entertainment programming, using the channel shared by TV2 and TV3, which ended transmissions at 9:30 pm. In 1992, TV2, TV3 and TV4 were combined into a new service called CCV (Contemporary Community Values). A third channel was introduced known as TSS, or Topsport Surplus, Topsport being the brand name for the SABC's sport coverage, but this was replaced by NNTV (National Network TV), an educational, non-commercial channel, in 1994.

The main channel, now called TV1, was divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, as before. It also became available in Walvis Bay, an enclave of South Africa in Namibia, which was itself then under South African administration, with a live feed of the channel broadcast via Intelsat being retransmitted on a local low-power repeater.

In 1986, the SABC's monopoly was challenged by the launch of a subscription-based service known as M-Net, backed by a consortium of newspaper publishers on 1 October. However, as part of its licensing restrictions, it could not broadcast news programmes, which were still the preserve of the SABC, although M-Net started broadcasting a current affairs programme called Carte Blanche in 1988. As the state-controlled broadcaster, the SABC was accused of bias towards the apartheid regime, giving only limited coverage to opposition politicians.

Asia[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, the largest and most dominant television channel, Television Broadcasts Limited, was the first free-to-air commercial television channel when it commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967. It may also well be among the oldest and first station to broadcast over-the-air in East and Southeast Asia.

ViuTV and RTHK TV started broadcasting in 2016.

India and South Asia[edit]

See also: Television in India

Around 600 FTA television channels and 180 Radio Channel are broadcast from ku-band and c-band transponders on the INSAT-4B and GSAT-15 satellite covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and parts of Afghanistan, and Myanmar. In India, the channels are marketed as DD Direct Plus/ DD Free Dish by Doordarshan, India's national broadcaster and other Indian private broadcaster ABS Free Dish from the ABS2 satellite, one can receive free-to-air regional TV channels using small DTH antenna and freetoair set-top box.

South Korea[edit]

In Korea, KBS, MBC (the 2 main public broadcasters), SBS (privately owned, but available for free to viewers), and EBS (including both TV and radio) are the free-to-air broadcasting stations. They dominate more than 80% of advertisement profits, according to the recent survey from the agency[ambiguous]. Due to the recent government's[which?] decision, digital television service for all free-to-air networks would be scheduled before the year 2012, followed by the end of analog television broadcasting.

Europe[edit]

Satellite[edit]

See also: List of free-to-air channels at 28°E

European countries have a tradition of most television services being free to air. Germany, in particular, receives in excess of 100 digital satellite TV channels free to air. Approximately half of the television channels on SES Astra's 19.2° east and 28.2° east satellite positions, and Eutelsat's Hot Bird (13° east) are free-to-air.

A number of European channels which one might expect to be broadcast free-to-air - including many countries' national terrestrial broadcasters - do not do so via satellite for copyright reasons. (Rights to purchase programs for free-to-air broadcast, especially via satellite, are often higher in price than for encrypted broadcast.) The lack of FTA among public broadcasters are prevalent in countries whose broadcasters tend to use subtitles for foreign language programmes; although Spain's two public domestic channels, La Una and La Dos, are also encrypted despite dubbed foreign programmes being the norm in Spain. However, these channels usually provide a scheme to offer free, but encrypted, viewing with free-to-view broadcasts. Certain programming on Italy's RAI, and the majority of Dutch channels are covered by such schemes (although in the case of RAI some programming is transmitted without encryption where there are no copyright issues). In Austria, the main national networks broadcast free-to-view via satellite; however, all regional and some smaller channels are transmitted free-to-air, and the national public broadcaster, ORF, offers a special free-to-air channel which airs selected programming without (i.e. those without copyright issues) via satellite all over Europe.

As Germany and Austria speak the same language and use the same satellite, Austrian viewers are able to receive about 120 free German-speaking channels from both countries.

In general, all satellite radio in Europe is free to air, but the more conventional broadcast systems in use mean that SiriusXM style in-car reception is not possible.

Cable and satellite distribution allow many more channels to carry sports, movies and specialist channels which are not broadcast as FTA. The viewing figures for these channels are generally much lower than the FTA channels.

Terrestrial[edit]

Various European countries broadcast a large number of channels via free-to-air terrestrial, generally as an analog PAL/SECAM transmission, digital DVB-T/T2 or a combination of the two.

Croatia[edit]

Main article: television in Croatia

In Croatia eleven national channels are free-to-air: HRT 1, HRT 2, HRT 3, HRT 4 (HRT being national broadcaster), Nova TV, Doma TV, RTL, RTL2, RTL Kockica, CMC and Sptv. There are around 21 local or regional channels. Until June 2020 all are transmitted via three OiV (state-owned public broadcasting company) DVB-T and one DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes. As of June 2020 three DVB-T MUXes will be switched off and all eleven national channels will be distributed via two OiV DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes.

Denmark[edit]

Main article: Digital terrestrial television in Denmark

In Denmark, six channels are as of 2020 free-to-air,[1] distributed via 18 main transmitter sites and 30 smaller, auxiliary transmitters.[2] The six channels (DR1, DR2, DR Ramasjang, Folketinget, TV2 Regionerne, and sign language/local programme) come in one DVB-T2multiplex.

France[edit]

Main article: television in France

In France, there are twenty six national television channels (MPEG-4 HD video) and 41 local television channels broadcast free-to-air via the TNT DVB-T service.

Germany[edit]

Main article: television in Germany § terrestrial

In Germany there are various free-to-air DVB-T services available, the number of which varies by region. Das Erste, ZDF, ZDFneo, ZDFinfo, 3sat, Arte, KiKA and Phoenix are available throughout the country, in addition to at least one region-dependent channel which is provided by the regional ARD member. Additionally, ARD's EinsFestival, EinsPlus and tagesschau24 are variously available in some parts of the country, and various commercial channels are available in metropolitan areas.

Ireland[edit]

Main article: Saorview

In the Republic of Ireland, there are nine television channels and 11 radio channels broadcast free-to-air via the DVB-T Saorview service. Analog PAL versions of some of the channels were also broadcast until October 24, 2012, when all analogue television broadcasting was shut down.

Malta[edit]

Main article: Television in Malta

All of Malta's National and Political Party Channels are available free-to-air. The National Channels, TVM and TVM2, Parliament TV and the political party channels NET and ONE, all are broadcast via the Free-to-air DVB-T service.

Even HD versions of these channels are available free-to-air. The only scrambled channel in Malta is ITV Teleshopping.

Netherlands[edit]

Main article: television in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, 3 national public television channels NPO 1, NPO 2 and NPO 3, and 7 national public radio channels broadcast free-to-air via the DVB-T Digitenne service. The television and radio channels of the regional public broadcasters are also free-to-air via the DVB-T service.

United Kingdom[edit]

Main articles: Freeview (UK) and List of digital terrestrial television channels (UK)

In the UK, around 108 free-to-air television channels and 30 free-to-air radio channels are available terrestrially via the Freeview DVB-T service. Seven HD channels are also broadcast via a public service broadcast multiplex and a commercial multiplex, both DVB-T2.

The informal term "council telly" is sometimes used for free-to-air television in the UK, evoking a basic service accessible to all.[3][4]

North America[edit]

There are a number of competing systems in use. Early adopters used C-band dishes several feet in diameter to receive analog microwave broadcasts, and later digital microwave broadcasts using the 3.7-4.2 GHz band. Today, although large C-band dishes can still receive some content, the 11.7-12.2 GHz Ku band is also used. Ku-band signals can be received using smaller dishes, often as small as under a meter (3 feet, 3 inches) in diameter, allowing FTA satellite to be picked up from smaller spaces such as apartment balconies (note, however, that these dishes are not quite as small as those commonly used for commercial services such as Dish Network, DirecTV, Bell ExpressVu, Shaw Direct, etc. Dishes intended for those services may not deliver an adequate signal on Ku-band). The European-developed DVB-S and DVB-S2 standards are the most commonly used broadcast methods, with analog transmissions almost completely discontinued as of mid-2014.

The most common North American sources for free-to-air DVB satellite television are:

  • NHK World HD on Intelsat 9 (58°W)
  • Retro Television Network, Heartland on AMC 9 (83°W)
  • LPB Louisiana PBS channels LPBHD, LPB2, and LPB3 (Create) on SES 2 (89°W)
  • NASA TV Multi-channel (NASA TV Public-Education, NASA Media, NASA TV UHD) on Horizons-1 (aka Galaxy 13) (127°W)
  • Eternal Word Television Network on Galaxy 17 (91°W)
  • My Family TV, CGTN on Galaxy 3C (95°W).
  • AMGTV and BYU Television (BYUtv) on Galaxy 19 (97°W)
  • English and foreign language broadcasters RT (TV network), Ebru TV, IRINN, Al Jazeera English and more up-linked by GlobeCast World TV on Galaxy 19 (97°W)
  • Christian broadcasters such as The Word Network, Emmanuel TV, Daystar Television Network, JCTV, Trinity Broadcasting Network, The Church Channel, 3ABN, The Hope Channel, Amazing Facts Television, God's Learning Channel are broadcast from the Galaxy 19 (97°W) satellite for Glorystar and Spiritcast Satellite Systems TV.
  • Peace TV English and Peace TV Urdu language which are global Islamic channels, available on Galaxy 19 (97°W)
  • DoD News on AMC 1 (103°W)
  • Jewish Life Television on Galaxy 18 (123°W)
  • Montana Public Broadcasting Service and other PBS Satellite Services on AMC 21 (125°W)
  • Classic Arts Showcase on Galaxy 17 (91°W) and Eternal Word Television Network HD on Galaxy 15 (133°W)
  • Football, basketball, baseball, soccer, and ice hockeywildfeeds on various satellites
  • InfoWars and Alex Jones Show broadcasts from Austin, Texas, and creates free-to-air 24/7 content on Galaxy 16 99°W

Most of these signals are carried by US satellites. There is little or no free Canadian DVB-S content available to users of medium-size dishes as much of the available Ku-band satellite bandwidth is occupied by pay-TV operators Shaw Direct and Bell Satellite TV, although larger C-band dishes can pick up some content. FTA signals may be scattered across multiple satellites, requiring a motor or multiple LNBs to receive everything. This differs from Europe, where FTA signals are commonly concentrated on a few specific satellites.

Another difference between North American FTA and FTA in most of the rest of the world is that in North America, very few of the available signals are actually intended for home viewers or other end-users. Instead, they are generally intended for reception by local television stations, cable system headends, or other commercial users. While it is generally thought to be legal for home viewers to view such transmissions as long as they are not encrypted, this means that there are several unique challenges to viewing FTA signals, challenges not present in other areas of the world. Among these are:

  • No schedule information is provided with most of the signals; therefore, satellite receivers cannot show a proper electronic program guide (EPG).
  • Because many of these broadcasts are essentially point-to-point transmissions, the originators often do not follow any international standards when setting various identification fields in the data stream. This causes issues with receivers and software designed for use in other parts of the world, as they may assume that if a channel contains the same ID information as another channel, those are duplicate channels. This may be a valid assumption in other parts of the world, but is almost never valid for North American FTA signals. When such an assumption is made, during a "blind scan" the receiver or software will often fail to correctly insert one or more channels into its database, or it may overwrite previously scanned valid channels (including other channels on the same satellite) with invalid information picked up from another, more recently scanned channel. If the end user does not understand what is happening, they may assume that the receiver cannot receive certain channels or that it is defective, yet if the correct data for those channels can be manually entered, those channels may become receivable. This problem can be mitigated if receivers can be set to ignore channels that appear to be duplicates during a "blind scan", except when such channels are on exactly the same satellite and same transponder frequency (as might occur if the user rescans a previously-scanned satellite).
  • Channels tend to come and go, or change transmission formats, often without any prior notice other than to their intended recipients. This means that a working channel could suddenly disappear without warning, and may need to be rescanned to become receivable again, or it may be gone permanently.
  • Channels that are currently FTA can become scrambled (encrypted) with no advance warning. A few channels tend to go back and forth between being "in the clear" (unscrambled) to scrambled at various times, but in most cases, once a channel is scrambled it stays scrambled.
  • Historically, it has appeared that broadcasters are more likely to scramble their signals when they become aware that home viewers and other "unauthorized" viewers are watching their signals. Therefore, those who know what signals are available may sometimes be reluctant to share that information in open forums. While sites exist that attempt to list currently viewable FTA signals, most of them are incomplete or do not contain current information. Such sites typically rely on reports of changes by viewers, and if viewers are reluctant to report new FTA signals for fear they might disappear, it becomes more of a challenge for such sites to maintain up-to-date listings.
  • What some would consider the most desirable signals, e.g. feeds from broadcast networks, are primarily only available on C-band, which requires a large dish (usually at least 6 feet/1.8 meters in diameter or more, although a few hobbyists have found it possible to receive some C-band signals using smaller dishes and high quality LNBs). Also some of those signals utilize high-bitrate formats that cannot be received by many older receivers, even if those receivers are capable of receiving digital signals, and such signals may require a larger than usual dish for adequate reception. In many areas, local zoning laws and/or homeowner associations forbid the placement of a large dish, therefore such dishes have fallen out of favor since commercial satellite services became widely available. Therefore, very few people have the capability to receive the C-band broadcasts. Another issue is that properly aiming a C-band dish is not something that a typical end-user would know how to do, since it tends to be a somewhat complex procedure (especially when a moveable dish is used with the intention of tracking the visible satellite arc in order to receive multiple satellites), and many of the installers that knew how to set up and correctly aim a C-band dish have exited the business.
  • While equipment and software is becoming available that allows home users to set up a backend system that can deliver received over-the-air ATSC signals to several frontend systems (for example, a HDHomeRun, VBox Home TV Gateway or similar TV tuner, used with MythTV or TVHeadEnd), a similar system for receiving FTA signals is considerably more difficult to set up. While PCI/PCIe tuner cards and USB tuners for DVB-S and DVB-S2 are available, there are often issues with drivers, or the cards may simply not be compatible with the backend software in use. Therefore, setting up such a system for FTA satellite reception tends to require considerably more technical knowledge, and a willingness to work through issues, than setting up such a system for receiving terrestrial signals.
  • Some syndicated programming is being sent as data, similar to the way a video file might be sent over the Internet. This means that the programming is not sent in a format that can be viewed in real time, as it is being received. Instead, the data must be captured to a storage device and decoded for later use. Traditional satellite receivers and even many PC tuner cards are not capable of receiving these signals, and even if you have a card capable of receiving such signals, you also need special software to find such data streams and when one is found, to extract the data stream and save it.

The largest groups of end-users for Ku-band free-to-air signals were initially the ethnic-language communities, as often free ethnic-language programming would be sponsored by Multilingual American Communities and their broadcasters. Depending on language and origin of the individual signals, North American ethnic-language TV is a mix of pay-TV, free-to-air and DBS operations. Today, many American broadcasters send a multitude of programming channels in many languages, spanning many new channels, so they can get National support, which ultimately leads to carriage by cable systems, to additionally support the high costs of broadcasting signals in this way.

Nevertheless, free-to-air satellite TV is a viable addition to home video systems, not only for the reception of specialized content but also for use in locations where terrestrial ATSC over-the-air reception is incomplete and additional channels are desired.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

See also: Television in Australia and Freeview (Australia)

Australia has five major free-to-air networks: the two public broadcasting networks - ABC and SBS, and three commercial networks - Seven Network, Nine Network, and Network 10. Traditionally each network had only a single channel in a geographic area, but with the advent of digital television each network started broadcasting several SD multichannels, such as 7two, 9Gem, 10 Bold, and SBS Food, as well as at least one HD channel. There are also free-to-air community television channels in some major cities.

Viewers in remote parts of Australia are able to access many Australian free-to-air channels using the DVB-S2 Optus VAST service.

New Zealand[edit]

Main article: List of free-to-air television stations in New Zealand

New Zealand has a number of FTA broadcasters such as Television New Zealand's TVNZ 1 and TV2, as well as MediaWorks New Zealand's TV3 and FOUR, Sky Network Television's Prime and the government subsidised the Māori Television and Te Reo channels.

Four channels, TV One, TV2, TV3, FOUR are also broadcast timeshifted by +1 hour on Freeview and Sky platforms.

A broadcast of parliament and a number of local channels, such as Cue TV are also available. Local stations such as CTV and Face TV (previously Triangle TV) were free-to-air analogue PAL transmissions prior to CTV migrating to the free-to-air digital DVB-T service and Face TV's terrestrial free-to-air service shutoff from December 2013.

A digital terrestrial version of Freeview was launched in 2008, which, unlike the analogue and free-to-air satellite options, supports high-definition broadcasts for TV One, 2 and 3.

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil the main FTA satellite is the Star One C2, it holds approximately 22 C-band analog channels, including all major networks like Rede Globo, SBT, Record, RedeTV!, Band and others, and 5 digital HDTV channels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-to-air
FREE TO AIR SATELLITE TELEVISON - M1 HD+ U.S EDITION

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