Specifications: Skull Length: cm. Horn Length Tip to Tip: cm.
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Thereof, what does a Ram skull symbolize?
The ram skull tattoo is a very popular way to have the ram tattooed. In many ancient societies the ram skull is very symbolic and is said to symbolize initiative, action, leadership and determination. Not only is it very symbolic, it is just a bad ass looking tattoo. Rams fighting is a sign of strength for many people.
Similarly, what does a Ram animal look like? Rams are male bighorn sheep, animals that live in the mountains and often settle arguments with fights that include ramming their heads into others. Not to be confused with mountain goats, rams can be identified by their long, curved horns, long fur, and split hooves.
Beside this, how strong is a RAM?
Rams—the animals—can also charge at 20 miles per hour or faster, according to Defenders of Wildlife. They can also maintain a speed of 15 miles per hour while going uphill, Live Science reports.
Do Skulls bring good luck?
It is viewed as the seat of intelligence, spirit and the spark of human life. Interesting fact, the skull is also the part of the body that is that least resistant to decay showing yet another sign of its strength as a symbol. In many cultures they believed wearing skulls would insure protection and well-being.
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Ram's Head, White Hollyhock-Hills (Ram's Head and White Hollyhock, New Mexico)
Yes! That is the original frame. Georgia O'Keeffe designed it herself. I like the way the frame's scallops echo the shapes of the clouds and the mountains.
No, we only know of a few cases where O'Keeffe did this. She may have been learning from other artists in her circle, like John Marin and Arthur Dove, who frequently designed frames for their own art.
Great question! O'Keeffe would collect bones, rocks and other findings from her walks in New Mexico for these paintings. This is a really evocative piece. She was very adamant about not explaining her work to other people and she didn't like to discuss what different things symbolized in her art. So, you're free to make your own interpretations.
I always wondered what she was all about. It seems she was serendipitous with object selection. And why not!
I agree! Very serendipitous! Here is a quote from O'Keefe about her first trip to New Mexico: "The first year I was out here, because there were no flowers, I began picking up bonesSo I brought home the bleached bones as my symbols of the desert. To me they are as beautiful as anything I know. To me they are strangely more living than the animals walking around—hair, eyes, and all, with their trails switching."
She did start painting painting those iconic skulls and flowers while still living in New York. She began traveling to New Mexico and bringing back objects that she would then paint in her New York City studio. Ultimately, O'Keeffe was so drawn to her subjects that she permanently relocated there. Georgia O'Keeffe moved to New Mexico in following the death of her husband, the photographer Alfred Stieglitz, in You can see an early skull and flower painting, "Ram's Head, White Hollyhock-Hills (Ram's Head and White Hollyhock, New Mexico)," from in a nearby gallery!
I saw the other paintings! is she originally from New Mexico?
Great! Georgia O'Keeffe actually grew up in Wisconsin. It's no New Mexico, but certainly far from big-city life.
Throughout her life, O'Keeffe lived all over the US. She studied in Chicago and New York; taught in Virginia, South Carolina, and Texas. She lived in New York with Stieglitz and ultimately owned two homes outside Santa Fe in New Mexico.
This work is by American artist Georgia O'Keeffe. She's most famous for her sensuous paintings of flowers and for works painted in the American Southwest. O'Keeffe was among a group of artists who strove to develop a uniquely American identity in the arts through emphasis on native subject matter, the modern urban experience, progressive means of representation (often resulting in abstraction), and spirituality as expressed through pure color and form.
During her visit to New Mexico, O'Keeffe collected animal bones on her daily walks. O'Keeffe said that, to her, bones did not signify death. Instead, they embodied the beauty of the desert landscape with their weathered surfaces, rough edges, and jagged openings.
O'Keeffe had been been visiting New Mexico almost every summer since the s, and she decided to move there after the death of her husband (photographer and gallery-owner Alfred Stieglitz) in She never thought of herself as a city-person to begin with, and truth to tell, she really never enjoyed living in New York very much!
She was drawn to the open spaces and bold light and dramatic coloring of the Southwestern landscape -- and she eventually owned two homes there, where she lived and worked until the end of her life. Did you see her painting of the "Ram's Head and White Hollyhock" in our galleries today?
With the crazy frame. Yep. She was New Mexico-based I guess when that was done
Yes! She designed that frame herself. She would gather bones on her daily walks in the desert and paint them, sometimes in combination with other objects.
She said that she thought of the bones as still being very much alive!
Georgia O'Keeffe did design the frame in this case. She is known to have done this only a few times. O'Keeffe may have been inspired by other artists from her circle who designed their own frames on a more regular basis.
The frame here definitley adds a different dimension to the work. The scallops echo the clouds and really make the painting "pop," in my opinion! What do you think about it?
I see. Didn't know that! Great to see it with its original frame. I love when artists do that.
I do too! It changes the whole feel of the work and makes the viewing experience more complete.
The combination of the skull and flower here might not have a metaphorical meaning. Many of O'Keeffe's paintings involved a combination of objects that reflected the landscape she was living in.
She would collect the bones while walking around the Southwest and, when this work was painted, take them back to New York. She liked painting bones because of their shape. The flower, hollyhock, was one that O'Keeffe picked from a garden at Ghost Ranch.
O'Keeffe has said, "The first year I was out here [New Mexico], because there were no flowers, I began picking up bones. Well, if I wanted to take something home, I wanted to take something home to work on."
Those curves fit into her general aesthetic of using simplified geometric forms.
In this painting they seem to echo the forms of the clouds and rolling hills, plus the petals of that white rose!
This is a wonderful example of the work O'Keeffe produced after encountering the landscape of New Mexico.
O'Keeffe was inspired by shapes and colors of the landscape in the American Southwest, after years of living in the New York area. While exploring, she would pick up animal bones that were scattered around the desert.
The way the skull hovers over the landscape really evokes the idea of the desert to me. How about you?
Agreed. It's haunting.
It really is! O'Keeffe was drawn to bones because of their shape, in a similar fashion to how she saw flowers in the Northeast.
You may be the first visitor to mention the Dali comparison, but I totally see it! A skull floating in the sky above a deserted landscape. When you get close you can see the signature O'Keeffe style though! She once said, I"I was in a surrealist show when I'd never heard of surrealism."
As you may have noticed, O'Keeffe loved to paint skulls, flowers, clouds, and desert landscapesand here she put them all together! She even designed this frame especially for this painting.
This is a wonderful app!
This painting brings together a few of O'Keeffe's favorite motifs. You may have noticed throughout the show that she painted many skulls, flowers, New Mexico landscapes, and clouds.
Overall, O'Keeffe was always inspired by nature and her surroundings. When she painted this she was living in New Mexico and spending a great deal of time in the desert.
This painting dates from the time when O'Keeffe was enamored with the Southwest but still spending time in New York. The flower is a great callback to her earlier works and is one that grew in New Mexico.
I just love how the skull floats over the landscape. O'Keeffe was drawn to bones because of their shape. She often collected objects while exploring the landscape. Bones were scattered about the desert and she would bring them to her studio.
The bones are really interesting. And she brings them to life.
Is the metallic frame a choice of hers or was it added by a previous owner?
O'Keeffe sometimes designed frames for her own paintings, like this one! The scalloped edge pairs nicely with the shapes in the landscape.
The skulls were very closely linked to her admiration of the New Mexico landscape.
The animals, the hills, the weather conditions and sky were all part of the landscape that called "my country." These hills were the view from her desert ranch.
Thank you. Did she hunt?
She did have guns at her ranch. We have descriptions of her killing rattlesnakes!
That's really cool.
This is "Ram's Head, White HollyhockHills". It features several of O'Keeffe's main motifs: the New Mexican landscape, where she spent summers and the latter half of her life; bones, which she would collect in the desert; and flowers. The flower here, the hollyhock, was actually a plant that grew in O'Keeffe's garden in New Mexico. She was often inspired by the environment around her, both the landscapes and objects she would find in it.
She also designed the frame for this piece herself!
That piece is actually part of the Brooklyn Museum's permanent collection! And the frame was designed by O'Keeffe. It includes so many of O'Keeffe's favorite images: the flower, of course, the skull, the clouds, and the hills!
From far away, I couldn't tell it was oil. I almost wanted to touch and feel it.
Her paintings do have a remarkably velvety quality.
O'Keeffe designed the frame for "Ram's Head, White Hollyhock" herself! When she was in New York, she worked with a framemaker named George Of who frequently collaborated with artists at Alfred Stieglitz's galleries.
Why did O'Keeffe use bones in her art?
O'Keeffe began collecting bones, and using them in her paintings, when she first visited New Mexico. She found them visually interesting and she liked the organic shapes. She said about the bones, " The bones do not symbolize death to me. They are shapes that I enjoy. It never occurs to me that they have anything to do with death. They're very lively. . . .They please me, and I have enjoyed them very much in relation to the sky."
Definitely one of my favorites in the exhibit. All of the elements of this painting were inspired by real New Mexican landscapes and objects O'Keeffe would encounter on her many strolls through the desert.
Those "Red Hills" in the background, for example were a landscape that O'Keeffe would come back to in here work over and over again and they were an actual place in the landscape that you could visit.
But then there is just a flower floating beside the skull/horns. Were flowers like this found in the area as well or is it an element that is borrowed from something else in her life?
The ram's head she collected on one of her walks and the hollyhock flower was growing in her vegetable garden!
I can see the similarities, but I don't think that O'Keeffe took a lot of influence from other artists at this point in her career. In fact, Dali didn't paint a lot of objects floating in the sky until the s, decades after this work by O'Keeffe.
The red hills in the background were a landscape in New Mexico near her ranch that she visited and painted over and over again. The skull was collected during many of her walks in the desert and the flower she picked from her garden. Though pasted together, the individual elements of the painting are rooted in reality.
They are actually true to real-life proportions, in relation to the skull, but they do look large in comparison to the hills below. O'Keeffe went for walks in the desert and collected bones that she took home to her ranch and used them as props in the studio.
This painting incorporates some of O'Keeffe's most iconic imagery: the bleached bones she collected in the desert, the desert itself, and a flower. She began painting all these subjects while still living in New York, when she would bring the objects she collected in New Mexico back to her studio in the city to paint. This painting was made during the time when she still lived in New York, but periodically visited New Mexico.
O'Keeffe has commented on this painting saying that the composition "just sort of grew together." She had collected the rams head skull from one of her walks in the desert and the white hollyhock flower from among the vegetables in her garden. One of her beloved New Mexico landscapes provides the background.
Yes! It's a departure from O'Keeffe's other work, neither a still life nor a landscape, but a combination of the two genres.. She collected the skull on one of her many walks throughout the desert, the flower was picked from her garden, and the red hills could be seen from her home.
In "Ram's Head, White Hollyhock Hills" you can really see how O'Keeffe began to collect a list of subjects that she was interested in painting, from the bleached bones of the desert to her signature flowers and the desert itself.
The frame was also designed by O'Keeffe to go with this painting. You can see how the scalloped edge mirrors the shapes of the clouds in the sky.
Would you say O'Keeffe was influenced by surrealism?
She was certainly aware of surrealism, but I'm not sure how much it influenced her art. Most works by O'Keeffeeven her abstract canvasesare rooted in the natural world.
In one interview with Katherine Kuh, she said, "I was in the surrealist show when I'd never heard of surrealism. I'm not a joiner." By the s, I'm sure she was aware of certain Surrealist exhibitions being held in New York. However, she'd begun working in this style by the s, playing with scale and space and cropping.
She was more directly influenced by photography, like the work of Stieglitz, Paul Strand, and Imogen Cunningham, to name just a few. And once she started visiting New Mexico, she was strongly affected by the different ways of seeing she gained there due to the new perspectives of such wide vast distances.
I also like thinking about the relationship between these paintings and the clothing and the objects she used to decorate her home. Her life as a total work of art!
This painting brings together a few of O'Keeffe's favorite subjects: desert bones, flowers, clouds, and the New Mexico landscape. She even designed this frame specially to complement the rolling hills!
For other uses, see Sheep (disambiguation).
Domesticated ruminant bred for meat, wool and milk
Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminantmammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the orderArtiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female is referred to as a ewe (), an intact male as a ram, occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a young sheep as a lamb.
Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia, with Iran being a geographic envelope of the domestication center. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, and lamb in the United States (including from adults). Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are also occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, Australia, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.
There is a large lexicon of unique terms for sheep husbandry which vary considerably by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap; it is both the singular and plural name for the animal. A group of sheep is called a flock. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing, shearing, and age.
Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a deeply entrenched place in human culture, and find representation in much modern language and symbology. As livestock, sheep are most often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions, especially the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals.
Main article: History of the domestic sheep
The exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear. The most common hypothesis states that Ovis aries is descended from the Asiatic (O. gmelini) species of mouflon; the European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) is a direct descendant of this popuation. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind (although the domestication of dogs may have taken place more than 20, years earlier); the domestication date is estimated to fall between 11, and 9, B.C in Mesopotamia and possibly around 7, B.C. in Mehrgarh in the Indus Valley. The rearing of sheep for secondary products, and the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Initially, sheep were kept solely for meat, milk and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around BC, and the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later.
Sheep husbandry spread quickly in Europe. Excavations show that in about BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. Practically from its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, and were even said to name individual animals.Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, and were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History (Naturalis Historia), speaks at length about sheep and wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from onwards.
Domestic sheep are relatively small ruminants, usually with a crimped hair called wool and often with horns forming a lateralspiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all (i.e. polled), or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair, but a few breeds may have several.
Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are largely variations of brown hues, and variation within species is extremely limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, and even spotted or piebald. Selection for easily dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, and as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly. However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, and may even appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces, mostly for handspinning. The nature of the fleece varies widely among the breeds, from dense and highly crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality even among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre.
Depending on breed, sheep show a range of heights and weights. Their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait that is often selected for in breeding. Ewes typically weigh between 45 and kilograms ( and lb), and rams between 45 and kilograms ( and lb). When all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth. As with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation, then the rear teeth grind it before it is swallowed. There are eight lower front teeth in ruminants, but there is some disagreement as to whether these are eight incisors, or six incisors and two incisor-shaped canines. This means that the dental formula for sheep is either or  There is a large diastema between the incisors and the molars.
In the first few years of life one can calculate the age of sheep from their front teeth, as a pair of milk teeth is replaced by larger adult teeth each year, the full set of eight adult front teeth being complete at about four years of age. The front teeth are then gradually lost as sheep age, making it harder for them to feed and hindering the health and productivity of the animal. For this reason, domestic sheep on normal pasture begin to slowly decline from four years on, and the life expectancy of a sheep is 10 to 12 years, though some sheep may live as long as 20 years.
Sheep have good hearing, and are sensitive to noise when being handled. Sheep have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, with excellent peripheral vision; with visual fields of about ° to °, sheep can see behind themselves without turning their heads. Many breeds have only short hair on the face, and some have facial wool (if any) confined to the poll and or the area of the mandibular angle; the wide angles of peripheral vision apply to these breeds. A few breeds tend to have considerable wool on the face; for some individuals of these breeds, peripheral vision may be greatly reduced by "wool blindness", unless recently shorn about the face. Sheep have poor depth perception; shadows and dips in the ground may cause sheep to baulk. In general, sheep have a tendency to move out of the dark and into well-lit areas, and prefer to move uphill when disturbed. Sheep also have an excellent sense of smell, and, like all species of their genus, have scent glands just in front of the eyes, and interdigitally on the feet. The purpose of these glands is uncertain, but those on the face may be used in breeding behaviors. The foot glands might also be related to reproduction, but alternative functions, such as secretion of a waste product or a scent marker to help lost sheep find their flock, have also been proposed.
Comparison with goats
Sheep and goats are closely related: both are in the subfamily Caprinae. However, they are separate species, so hybrids rarely occur and are always infertile. A hybrid of a ewe and a buck (a male goat) is called a sheep-goat hybrid, and is not to be confused with the sheep-goat chimera, though both are known as geep. Visual differences between sheep and goats include the beard of goats and divided upper lip of sheep. Sheep tails also hang down, even when short or docked, while the short tails of goats are held upwards. Also, sheep breeds are often naturally polled (either in both sexes or just in the female), while naturally polled goats are rare (though many are polled artificially). Males of the two species differ in that buck goats acquire a unique and strong odor during the rut, whereas rams do not.
See also: List of sheep breeds
The domestic sheep is a multi-purpose animal, and the more than breeds now in existence were created to serve these diverse purposes. Some sources give a count of a thousand or more breeds, but these numbers cannot be verified, according to some sources. However, several hundred breeds of sheep have been identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), with the estimated number varying somewhat from time to time: e.g. breeds as of , breeds as of  and breeds as of  (These numbers exclude extinct breeds, which are also tallied by the FAO.) For the purpose of such tallies, the FAO definition of a breed is "either a subspecific group of domestic livestock with definable and identifiable external characteristics that enable it to be separated by visual appraisal from other similarly defined groups within the same species or a group for which geographical and/or cultural separation from phenotypically similar groups has led to acceptance of its separate identity." Almost all sheep are classified as being best suited to furnishing a certain product: wool, meat, milk, hides, or a combination in a dual-purpose breed. Other features used when classifying sheep include face color (generally white or black), tail length, presence or lack of horns, and the topography for which the breed has been developed. This last point is especially stressed in the UK, where breeds are described as either upland (hill or mountain) or lowland breeds. A sheep may also be of a fat-tailed type, which is a dual-purpose sheep common in Africa and Asia with larger deposits of fat within and around its tail.
Breeds are often categorized by the type of their wool. Fine wool breeds are those that have wool of great crimp and density, which are preferred for textiles. Most of these were derived from Merino sheep, and the breed continues to dominate the world sheep industry. Downs breeds have wool between the extremes, and are typically fast-growing meat and ram breeds with dark faces. Some major medium wool breeds, such as the Corriedale, are dual-purpose crosses of long and fine-wooled breeds and were created for high-production commercial flocks. Long wool breeds are the largest of sheep, with long wool and a slow rate of growth. Long wool sheep are most valued for crossbreeding to improve the attributes of other sheep types. For example: the American Columbia breed was developed by crossing Lincoln rams (a long wool breed) with fine-wooled Rambouillet ewes.
Coarse or carpet wool sheep are those with a medium to long length wool of characteristic coarseness. Breeds traditionally used for carpet wool show great variability, but the chief requirement is a wool that will not break down under heavy use (as would that of the finer breeds). As the demand for carpet-quality wool declines, some breeders of this type of sheep are attempting to use a few of these traditional breeds for alternative purposes. Others have always been primarily meat-class sheep.
A minor class of sheep are the dairy breeds. Dual-purpose breeds that may primarily be meat or wool sheep are often used secondarily as milking animals, but there are a few breeds that are predominantly used for milking. These sheep produce a higher quantity of milk and have slightly longer lactation curves. In the quality of their milk, the fat and protein content percentages of dairy sheep vary from non-dairy breeds, but lactose content does not.
A last group of sheep breeds is that of fur or hair sheep, which do not grow wool at all. Hair sheep are similar to the early domesticated sheep kept before woolly breeds were developed, and are raised for meat and pelts. Some modern breeds of hair sheep, such as the Dorper, result from crosses between wool and hair breeds. For meat and hide producers, hair sheep are cheaper to keep, as they do not need shearing. Hair sheep are also more resistant to parasites and hot weather.
With the modern rise of corporate agribusiness and the decline of localized family farms, many breeds of sheep are in danger of extinction. The Rare Breeds Survival Trust of the UK lists 22 native breeds as having only 3, registered animals (each), and The Livestock Conservancy lists 14 as either "critical" or "threatened". Preferences for breeds with uniform characteristics and fast growth have pushed heritage (or heirloom) breeds to the margins of the sheep industry. Those that remain are maintained through the efforts of conservation organizations, breed registries, and individual farmers dedicated to their preservation.
Sheep are herbivorous mammals. Most breeds prefer to graze on grass and other short roughage, avoiding the taller woody parts of plants that goats readily consume. Both sheep and goats use their lips and tongues to select parts of the plant that are easier to digest or higher in nutrition. Sheep, however, graze well in monoculture pastures where most goats fare poorly.
Like all ruminants, sheep have a complex digestive system composed of four chambers, allowing them to break down cellulose from stems, leaves, and seed hulls into simpler carbohydrates. When sheep graze, vegetation is chewed into a mass called a bolus, which is then passed into the rumen, via the reticulum. The rumen is a to liter (5 to 10 gallon) organ in which feed is fermented. The fermenting organisms include bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. (Other important rumen organisms include some archaea, which produce methane from carbon dioxide.) The bolus is periodically regurgitated back to the mouth as cud for additional chewing and salivation. After fermentation in the rumen, feed passes into the reticulum and the omasum; special feeds such as grains may bypass the rumen altogether. After the first three chambers, food moves into the abomasum for final digestion before processing by the intestines. The abomasum is the only one of the four chambers analogous to the human stomach, and is sometimes called the "true stomach".
Other than forage, the other staple feed for sheep is hay, often during the winter months. The ability to thrive solely on pasture (even without hay) varies with breed, but all sheep can survive on this diet. Also included in some sheep's diets are minerals, either in a trace mix or in licks. Feed provided to sheep must be specially formulated, as most cattle, poultry, pig, and even some goat feeds contain levels of copper that are lethal to sheep. The same danger applies to mineral supplements such as salt licks.
Sheep follow a diurnal pattern of activity, feeding from dawn to dusk, stopping sporadically to rest and chew their cud. Ideal pasture for sheep is not lawnlike grass, but an array of grasses, legumes and forbs. Types of land where sheep are raised vary widely, from pastures that are seeded and improved intentionally to rough, native lands. Common plants toxic to sheep are present in most of the world, and include (but are not limited to) cherry, some oaks and acorns, tomato, yew, rhubarb, potato, and rhododendron.
Effects on pasture
Sheep are largely grazing herbivores, unlike browsing animals such as goats and deer that prefer taller foliage. With a much narrower face, sheep crop plants very close to the ground and can overgraze a pasture much faster than cattle. For this reason, many shepherds use managed intensive rotational grazing, where a flock is rotated through multiple pastures, giving plants time to recover. Paradoxically, sheep can both cause and solve the spread of invasive plant species. By disturbing the natural state of pasture, sheep and other livestock can pave the way for invasive plants. However, sheep also prefer to eat invasives such as cheatgrass, leafy spurge, kudzu and spotted knapweed over native species such as sagebrush, making grazing sheep effective for conservation grazing. Research conducted in Imperial County, California compared lamb grazing with herbicides for weed control in seedling alfalfa fields. Three trials demonstrated that grazing lambs were just as effective as herbicides in controlling winter weeds. Entomologists also compared grazing lambs to insecticides for insect control in winter alfalfa. In this trial, lambs provided insect control as effectively as insecticides.
Sheep are flock animals and strongly gregarious; much sheep behavior can be understood on the basis of these tendencies. The dominance hierarchy of sheep and their natural inclination to follow a leader to new pastures were the pivotal factors in sheep being one of the first domesticated livestock species. Furthermore, in contrast to the red deer and gazelle (two other ungulates of primary importance to meat production in prehistoric times), sheep do not defend territories although they do form home ranges. All sheep have a tendency to congregate close to other members of a flock, although this behavior varies with breed, and sheep can become stressed when separated from their flock members. During flocking, sheep have a strong tendency to follow, and a leader may simply be the first individual to move. Relationships in flocks tend to be closest among related sheep: in mixed-breed flocks, subgroups of the same breed tend to form, and a ewe and her direct descendants often move as a unit within large flocks. Sheep can become hefted to one particular local pasture (heft) so they do not roam freely in unfenced landscapes. Lambs learn the heft from ewes and if whole flocks are culled it must be retaught to the replacement animals.
Flock behaviour in sheep is generally only exhibited in groups of four or more sheep; fewer sheep may not react as expected when alone or with few other sheep. Being a prey species, the primary defense mechanism of sheep is to flee from danger when their flight zone is entered. Cornered sheep may charge and butt, or threaten by hoof stamping and adopting an aggressive posture. This is particularly true for ewes with newborn lambs.
In regions where sheep have no natural predators, none of the native breeds of sheep exhibit a strong flocking behavior.
Farmers exploit flocking behavior to keep sheep together on unfenced pastures such as hill farming, and to move them more easily. For this purpose shepherds may use herding dogs in this effort, with a highly bred herding ability. Sheep are food-oriented, and association of humans with regular feeding often results in sheep soliciting people for food. Those who are moving sheep may exploit this behavior by leading sheep with buckets of feed.
Sheep establish a dominance hierarchy through fighting, threats and competitiveness. Dominant animals are inclined to be more aggressive with other sheep, and usually feed first at troughs. Primarily among rams, horn size is a factor in the flock hierarchy. Rams with different size horns may be less inclined to fight to establish the dominance order, while rams with similarly sized horns are more so.Merinos have an almost linear hierarchy whereas there is a less rigid structure in Border Leicesters when a competitive feeding situation arises.
In sheep, position in a moving flock is highly correlated with social dominance, but there is no definitive study to show consistent voluntary leadership by an individual sheep.
Intelligence and learning ability
Sheep are frequently thought of as unintelligent animals. Their flocking behavior and quickness to flee and panic can make shepherding a difficult endeavor for the uninitiated. Despite these perceptions, a University of Illinoismonograph on sheep reported their intelligence to be just below that of pigs and on par with that of cattle. Sheep can recognize individual human and ovine faces and remember them for years. In addition to long-term facial recognition of individuals, sheep can also differentiate emotional states through facial characteristics. If worked with patiently, sheep may learn their names, and many sheep are trained to be led by halter for showing and other purposes. Sheep have also responded well to clicker training. Sheep have been used as pack animals; Tibetan nomads distribute baggage equally throughout a flock as it is herded between living sites.
It has been reported that some sheep have apparently shown problem-solving abilities; a flock in West Yorkshire, England allegedly found a way to get over cattle grids by rolling on their backs, although documentation of this has relied on anecdotal accounts.
Sounds made by domestic sheep include bleats, grunts, rumbles and snorts. Bleating ("baaing") is used mostly for contact communication, especially between dam and lambs, but also at times between other flock members. The bleats of individual sheep are distinctive, enabling the ewe and her lambs to recognize each other's vocalizations. Vocal communication between lambs and their dam declines to a very low level within several weeks after parturition. A variety of bleats may be heard, depending on sheep age and circumstances. Apart from contact communication, bleating may signal distress, frustration or impatience; however, sheep are usually silent when in pain. Isolation commonly prompts bleating by sheep. Pregnant ewes may grunt when in labor. Rumbling sounds are made by the ram during courting; somewhat similar rumbling sounds may be made by the ewe, especially when with her neonate lambs. A snort (explosive exhalation through the nostrils) may signal aggression or a warning, and is often elicited from startled sheep.
In sheep breeds lacking facial wool, the visual field is wide. In 10 sheep (Cambridge, Lleyn and Welsh Mountain breeds, which lack facial wool), the visual field ranged from ° to °, averaging °, with binocular overlap ranging from ° to 74°, averaging °. In some breeds, unshorn facial wool can limit the visual field; in some individuals, this may be enough to cause "wool blindness". In 60 Merinos, visual fields ranged from ° to °, averaging °, and the binocular field ranged from ° to °, averaging °; 36% of the measurements were limited by wool, although photographs of the experiments indicate that only limited facial wool regrowth had occurred since shearing. In addition to facial wool (in some breeds), visual field limitations can include ears and (in some breeds) horns, so the visual field can be extended by tilting the head. Sheep eyes exhibit very low hyperopia and little astigmatism. Such visual characteristics are likely to produce a well-focused retinal image of objects in both the middle and long distance. Because sheep eyes have no accommodation, one might expect the image of very near objects to be blurred, but a rather clear near image could be provided by the tapetum and large retinal image of the sheep's eye, and adequate close vision may occur at muzzle length. Good depth perception, inferred from the sheep's sure-footedness, was confirmed in "visual cliff" experiments; behavioral responses indicating depth perception are seen in lambs at one day old. Sheep are thought to have colour vision, and can distinguish between a variety of colours: black, red, brown, green, yellow and white. Sight is a vital part of sheep communication, and when grazing, they maintain visual contact with each other. Each sheep lifts its head upwards to check the position of other sheep in the flock. This constant monitoring is probably what keeps the sheep in a flock as they move along grazing. Sheep become stressed when isolated; this stress is reduced if they are provided with a mirror, indicating that the sight of other sheep reduces stress.
Taste is the most important sense in sheep, establishing forage preferences, with sweet and sour plants being preferred and bitter plants being more commonly rejected. Touch and sight are also important in relation to specific plant characteristics, such as succulence and growth form.
The ram uses his vomeronasal organ (sometimes called the Jacobson's organ) to sense the pheromones of ewes and detect when they are in estrus. The ewe uses her vomeronasal organ for early recognition of her neonate lamb.
Main article: Domestic sheep reproduction
Sheep follow a similar reproductive strategy to other herd animals. A group of ewes is generally mated by a single ram, who has either been chosen by a breeder or (in feral populations) has established dominance through physical contest with other rams. Most sheep are seasonal breeders, although some are able to breed year-round. Ewes generally reach sexual maturity at six to eight months old, and rams generally at four to six months. However, there are exceptions. For example, Finnsheep ewe lambs may reach puberty as early as 3 to 4 months, and Merino ewes sometimes reach puberty at 18 to 20 months. Ewes have estrus cycles about every 17 days, during which they emit a scent and indicate readiness through physical displays towards rams. A minority of rams (8% on average) display a preference for homosexuality and a small number of the females that were accompanied by a male fetus in utero are freemartins (female animals that are behaviorally masculine and lack functioning ovaries).
In feral sheep, rams may fight during the rut to determine which individuals may mate with ewes. Rams, especially unfamiliar ones, will also fight outside the breeding period to establish dominance; rams can kill one another if allowed to mix freely. During the rut, even usually friendly rams may become aggressive towards humans due to increases in their hormone levels.
After mating, sheep have a gestation period of about five months, and normal labor takes one to three hours. Although some breeds regularly throw larger litters of lambs, most produce single or twin lambs. During or soon after labor, ewes and lambs may be confined to small lambing jugs, small pens designed to aid both careful observation of ewes and to cement the bond between them and their lambs.
Ovine obstetrics can be problematic. By selectively breeding ewes that produce multiple offspring with higher birth weights for generations, sheep producers have inadvertently caused some domestic sheep to have difficulty lambing; balancing ease of lambing with high productivity is one of the dilemmas of sheep breeding. In the case of any such problems, those present at lambing may assist the ewe by extracting or repositioning lambs. After the birth, ewes ideally break the amniotic sac (if it is not broken during labor), and begin licking clean the lamb. Most lambs will begin standing within an hour of birth. In normal situations, lambs nurse after standing, receiving vital colostrum milk. Lambs that either fail to nurse or are rejected by the ewe require help to survive, such as bottle-feeding or fostering by another ewe.
Most lambs begin life being born outdoors. After lambs are several weeks old, lamb marking (ear tagging, docking, mulesing, and castrating) is carried out. Vaccinations are usually carried out at this point as well. Ear tags with numbers are attached, or ear marks are applied, for ease of later identification of sheep. Docking and castration are commonly done after 24 hours (to avoid interference with maternal bonding and consumption of colostrum) and are often done not later than one week after birth, to minimize pain, stress, recovery time and complications. The first course of vaccinations (commonly anti-clostridial) is commonly given at an age of about 10 to 12 weeks; i.e. when the concentration of maternal antibodies passively acquired via colostrum is expected to have fallen low enough to permit development of active immunity. Ewes are often revaccinated annually about 3 weeks before lambing, to provide high antibody concentrations in colostrum during the first several hours after lambing. Ram lambs that will either be slaughtered or separated from ewes before sexual maturity are not usually castrated. Objections to all these procedures have been raised by animal rights groups, but farmers defend them by saying they save money, and inflict only temporary pain.
Sheep may fall victim to poisons, infectious diseases, and physical injuries. As a prey species, a sheep's system is adapted to hide the obvious signs of illness, to prevent being targeted by predators. However, some signs of ill health are obvious, with sick sheep eating little, vocalizing excessively, and being generally listless. Throughout history, much of the money and labor of sheep husbandry has aimed to prevent sheep ailments. Historically, shepherds often created remedies by experimentation on the farm. In some developed countries, including the United States, sheep lack the economic importance for drug companies to perform expensive clinical trials required to approve more than a relatively limited number of drugs for ovine use. However, extra-label drug use in sheep production is permitted in many jurisdictions, subject to certain restrictions. In the US, for example, regulations governing extra-label drug use in animals are found in 21 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part  In the 20th and 21st centuries, a minority of sheep owners have turned to alternative treatments such as homeopathy, herbalism and even traditional Chinese medicine to treat sheep veterinary problems. Despite some favorable anecdotal evidence, the effectiveness of alternative veterinary medicine has been met with skepticism in scientific journals. The need for traditional anti-parasite drugs and antibiotics is widespread, and is the main impediment to certified organic farming with sheep.
Many breeders take a variety of preventive measures to ward off problems. The first is to ensure all sheep are healthy when purchased. Many buyers avoid outlets known to be clearing houses for animals culled from healthy flocks as either sick or simply inferior. This can also mean maintaining a closed flock, and quarantining new sheep for a month. Two fundamental preventive programs are maintaining good nutrition and reducing stress in the sheep. Restraint, isolation, loud noises, novel situations, pain, heat, extreme cold, fatigue and other stressors can lead to secretion of cortisol, a stress hormone, in amounts that may indicate welfare problems. Excessive stress can compromise the immune system. "Shipping fever" (pneumonic mannheimiosis, formerly called pasteurellosis) is a disease of particular concern, that can occur as a result of stress, notably during transport and (or) handling. Pain, fear and several other stressors can cause secretion of epinephrine (adrenaline). Considerable epinephrine secretion in the final days before slaughter can adversely affect meat quality (by causing glycogenolysis, removing the substrate for normal post-slaughter acidification of meat) and result in meat becoming more susceptible to colonization by spoilage bacteria. Because of such issues, low-stress handling is essential in sheep management. Avoiding poisoning is also important; common poisons are pesticide sprays, inorganic fertilizer, motor oil, as well as radiator coolant containing ethylene glycol.
Common forms of preventive medication for sheep are vaccinations and treatments for parasites. Both external and internal parasites are the most prevalent malady in sheep, and are either fatal, or reduce the productivity of flocks.Worms are the most common internal parasites. They are ingested during grazing, incubate within the sheep, and are expelled through the digestive system (beginning the cycle again). Oral anti-parasitic medicines, known as drenches, are given to a flock to treat worms, sometimes after worm eggs in the feces has been counted to assess infestation levels. Afterwards, sheep may be moved to a new pasture to avoid ingesting the same parasites. External sheep parasites include: lice (for different parts of the body), sheep keds, nose bots, sheep itch mites, and maggots. Keds are blood-sucking parasites that cause general malnutrition and decreased productivity, but are not fatal. Maggots are those of the bot fly and the blow-fly, commonly Lucilia sericata or its relative L. cuprina. Fly maggots cause the extremely destructive condition of flystrike. Flies lay their eggs in wounds or wet, manure-soiled wool; when the maggots hatch they burrow into a sheep's flesh, eventually causing death if untreated. In addition to other treatments, crutching (shearing wool from a sheep's rump) is a common preventive method. Some countries allow mulesing, a practice that involves stripping away the skin on the rump to prevent fly-strike, normally performed when the sheep is a lamb. Nose bots are fly larvae that inhabit a sheep's sinuses, causing breathing difficulties and discomfort. Common signs are a discharge from the nasal passage, sneezing, and frantic movement such as head shaking. External parasites may be controlled through the use of backliners, sprays or immersive sheep dips.
A wide array of bacterial and viral diseases affect sheep. Diseases of the hoof, such as foot rot and foot scald may occur, and are treated with footbaths and other remedies. Foot rot is present in over 97% of flocks in the UK. These painful conditions cause lameness and hinder feeding. Ovine Johne's disease is a wasting disease that affects young sheep. Bluetongue disease is an insect-borne illness causing fever and inflammation of the mucous membranes. Ovine rinderpest (or peste des petits ruminants) is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease affecting sheep and goats. Sheep may also be affected by primary or secondary photosensitization. Tetanus can also afflict sheep through wounds from shearing, docking, castration, or vaccination. The organism also can be introduced into the reproductive tract by unsanitary humans who assist ewes during lambing.
A few sheep conditions are transmissible to humans. Orf (also known as scabby mouth, contagious ecthyma or soremouth) is a skin disease leaving lesions that is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact. Cutaneous anthrax is also called woolsorter's disease, as the spores can be transmitted in unwashed wool. More seriously, the organisms that can cause spontaneous enzootic abortion in sheep are easily transmitted to pregnant women. Also of concern are the prion disease scrapie and the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as both can devastate flocks. The latter poses a slight risk to humans. During the FMD pandemic in the UK, hundreds of sheep were culled and some rare British breeds were at risk of extinction due to this.
Of the , sheep lost to the US economy in , % were lost to predators, while % were lost to some form of disease. Poisoning accounted for % of non-productive deaths.
Main article: Domestic sheep predation
Other than parasites and disease, predation is a threat to sheep and the profitability of sheep raising. Sheep have little ability to defend themselves, compared with other species kept as livestock. Even if sheep survive an attack, they may die from their injuries or simply from panic. However, the impact of predation varies dramatically with region. In Africa, Australia, the Americas, and parts of Europe and Asia predators are a serious problem. In the United States, for instance, over one third of sheep deaths in were caused by predation. In contrast, other nations are virtually devoid of sheep predators, particularly islands known for extensive sheep husbandry. Worldwide, canids—including the domestic dog—are responsible for most sheep deaths. Other animals that occasionally prey on sheep include: felines, bears, birds of prey, ravens and feral hogs.
Sheep producers have used a wide variety of measures to combat predation. Pre-modern shepherds used their own presence, livestock guardian dogs, and protective structures such as barns and fencing. Fencing (both regular and electric), penning sheep at night and lambing indoors all continue to be widely used. More modern shepherds used guns, traps, and poisons to kill predators, causing significant decreases in predator populations. In the wake of the environmental and conservation movements, the use of these methods now usually falls under the purview of specially designated government agencies in most developed countries.
The s saw a resurgence in the use of livestock guardian dogs and the development of new methods of predator control by sheep producers, many of them non-lethal. Donkeys and guard llamas have been used since the s in sheep operations, using the same basic principle as livestock guardian dogs. Interspecific pasturing, usually with larger livestock such as cattle or horses, may help to deter predators, even if such species do not actively guard sheep. In addition to animal guardians, contemporary sheep operations may use non-lethal predator deterrents such as motion-activated lights and noisy alarms.
Main article: Agricultural economics
Sheep are an important part of the global agricultural economy. However, their once vital status has been largely replaced by other livestock species, especially the pig, chicken, and cow.China, Australia, India, and Iran have the largest modern flocks, and serve both local and exportation needs for wool and mutton. Other countries such as New Zealand have smaller flocks but retain a large international economic impact due to their export of sheep products. Sheep also play a major role in many local economies, which may be niche markets focused on organic or sustainable agriculture and local food customers. Especially in developing countries, such flocks may be a part of subsistence agriculture rather than a system of trade. Sheep themselves may be a medium of trade in barter economies.
Domestic sheep provide a wide array of raw materials. Wool was one of the first textiles, although in the late 20th century wool prices began to fall dramatically as the result of the popularity and cheap prices for synthetic fabrics. For many sheep owners, the cost of shearing is greater than the possible profit from the fleece, making subsisting on wool production alone practically impossible without farm subsidies. Fleeces are used as material in making alternative products such as wool insulation. In the 21st century, the sale of meat is the most profitable enterprise in the sheep industry, even though far less sheep meat is consumed than chicken, pork or beef.
Sheepskin is likewise used for making clothes, footwear, rugs, and other products. Byproducts from the slaughter of sheep are also of value: sheep tallow can be used in candle and soap making, sheep bone and cartilage has been used to furnish carved items such as dice and buttons as well as rendered glue and gelatin. Sheep intestine can be formed into sausage casings, and lamb intestine has been formed into surgical sutures, as well as strings for musical instruments and tennis rackets. Sheep droppings, which are high in cellulose, have even been sterilized and mixed with traditional pulp materials to make paper. Of all sheep byproducts, perhaps the most valuable is lanolin: the waterproof, fatty substance found naturally in sheep's wool and used as a base for innumerable cosmetics and other products.
Some farmers who keep sheep also make a profit from live sheep. Providing lambs for youth programs such as 4-H and competition at agricultural shows is often a dependable avenue for the sale of sheep. Farmers may also choose to focus on a particular breed of sheep in order to sell registered purebred animals, as well as provide a ram rental service for breeding. A new option for deriving profit from live sheep is the rental of flocks for grazing; these "mowing services" are hired in order to keep unwanted vegetation down in public spaces and to lessen fire hazard.
Despite the falling demand and price for sheep products in many markets, sheep have distinct economic advantages when compared with other livestock. They do not require expensive housing, such as that used in the intensive farming of chickens or pigs. They are an efficient use of land; roughly six sheep can be kept on the amount that would suffice for a single cow or horse. Sheep can also consume plants, such as noxious weeds, that most other animals will not touch, and produce more young at a faster rate. Also, in contrast to most livestock species, the cost of raising sheep is not necessarily tied to the price of feed crops such as grain, soybeans and corn. Combined with the lower cost of quality sheep, all these factors combine to equal a lower overhead for sheep producers, thus entailing a higher profitability potential for the small farmer. Sheep are especially beneficial for independent producers, including family farms with limited resources, as the sheep industry is one of the few types of animal agriculture that has not been vertically integrated by agribusiness. However, small flocks, from 10 to 50 ewes, often are not profitable because they tend to be poorly managed. The primary reason is that mechanization is not feasible, so return per hour of labor is not maximized. Small farm flocks generally are used simply to control weeds on irrigation ditches or maintained as a hobby.
Main articles: Lamb and mutton and Sheep milk
See also: Sheep milk cheese, List of sheep milk cheeses, Category:Sheep's-milk cheeses, and Sheep's trotters
Sheep meat and milk were one of the earliest staple proteins consumed by human civilization after the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Sheep meat prepared for food is known as either mutton or lamb, and approximately million sheep are slaughtered each year for meat worldwide. "Mutton" is derived from the Old Frenchmoton, which was the word for sheep used by the Anglo-Norman rulers of much of the British Isles in the Middle Ages. This became the name for sheep meat in English, while the Old English word sceap was kept for the live animal. Throughout modern history, "mutton" has been limited to the meat of mature sheep usually at least two years of age; "lamb" is used for that of immature sheep less than a year.
In the 21st century, the nations with the highest consumption of sheep meat are the Arab States of the Persian Gulf, New Zealand, Australia, Greece, Uruguay, the United Kingdom and Ireland. These countries eat 14–40lbs (3–18kg) of sheep meat per capita, per annum. Sheep meat is also popular in France, Africa (especially the Arab World), the Caribbean, the rest of the Middle East, India, and parts of China. This often reflects a history of sheep production. In these countries in particular, dishes comprising alternative cuts and offal may be popular or traditional. Sheep testicles—called animelles or lamb fries—are considered a delicacy in many parts of the world. Perhaps the most unusual dish of sheep meat is the Scottish haggis, composed of various sheep innards cooked along with oatmeal and chopped onions inside its stomach. In comparison, countries such as the U.S. consume only a pound or less (under kg), with Americans eating 50pounds (22kg) of pork and 65pounds (29kg) of beef. In addition, such countries rarely eat mutton, and may favor the more expensive cuts of lamb: mostly lamb chops and leg of lamb.
Though sheep's milk may be drunk rarely in fresh form, today it is used predominantly in cheese and yogurt making. Sheep have only two teats, and produce a far smaller volume of milk than cows. However, as sheep's milk contains far more fat, solids, and minerals than cow's milk, it is ideal for the cheese-making process. It also resists contamination during cooling better because of its much higher calcium content. Well-known cheeses made from sheep milk include the Feta of Bulgaria and Greece, Roquefort of France, Manchego from Spain, the Pecorino Romano (the Italian word for sheep is pecore) and Ricotta of Italy. Yogurts, especially some forms of strained yogurt, may also be made from sheep milk. Many of these products are now often made with cow's milk, especially when produced outside their country of origin. Sheep milk contains % lactose, which may affect those who are intolerant.
As with other domestic animals, the meat of uncastrated males is inferior in quality, especially as they grow. A "bucky" lamb is a lamb which was not castrated early enough, or which was castrated improperly (resulting in one testicle being retained). These lambs are worth less at market.
Sheep are generally too large and reproduce too slowly to make ideal research subjects, and thus are not a common model organism. They have, however, played an influential role in some fields of science. In particular, the Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, Scotland used sheep for genetics research that produced groundbreaking results. In , two ewes named Megan and Morag were the first mammals cloned from differentiated cells. A year later, a Finnish Dorset sheep named Dolly, dubbed "the world's most famous sheep" in Scientific American, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell. Following this, Polly and Molly were the first mammals to be simultaneously cloned and transgenic.
As of , the sheep genome has not been fully sequenced, although a detailed genetic map has been published, and a draft version of the complete genome produced by assembling sheep DNA sequences using information given by the genomes of other mammals. In , a transgenic sheep named "Peng Peng" was cloned by Chinese scientists, who spliced his genes with that of a roundworm (C. elegans) in order to increase production of fats healthier for human consumption.
In the study of natural selection, the population of Soay sheep that remain on the island of Hirta have been used to explore the relation of body size and coloration to reproductive success. Soay sheep come in several colors, and researchers investigated why the larger, darker sheep were in decline; this occurrence contradicted the rule of thumb that larger members of a population tend to be more successful reproductively. The feral Soays on Hirta are especially useful subjects because they are isolated.
Sheep are one of the few animals where the molecular basis of the diversity of male sexual preferences has been examined. However, this research has been controversial, and much publicity has been produced by a study at the Oregon Health and Science University that investigated the mechanisms that produce homosexuality in rams. Organizations such as PETA campaigned against the study, accusing scientists of trying to cure homosexuality in the sheep. OHSU and the involved scientists vehemently denied such accusations.
Domestic sheep are sometimes used in medical research, particularly for researching cardiovascular physiology, in areas such as hypertension and heart failure. Pregnant sheep are also a useful model for human pregnancy, and have been used to investigate the effects on fetal development of malnutrition and hypoxia. In behavioral sciences, sheep have been used in isolated cases for the study of facial recognition, as their mental process of recognition is qualitatively similar to humans.
See also: Mammals in culture, List of fictional sheep, Bellwether, and Black sheep
Sheep have had a strong presence in many cultures, especially in areas where they form the most common type of livestock. In the English language, to call someone a sheep or ovine may allude that they are timid and easily led. In contradiction to this image, male sheep are often used as symbols of virility and power; the logos of the Los Angeles Rams football team and the Dodge Ram pickup truck allude to males of the bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis.
Counting sheep is popularly said to be an aid to sleep, and some ancient systems of counting sheep persist today. Sheep also enter in colloquial sayings and idiom frequently with such phrases as "black sheep". To call an individual a black sheep implies that they are an odd or disreputable member of a group. This usage derives from the recessive trait that causes an occasional black lamb to be born into an entirely white flock. These black sheep were considered undesirable by shepherds, as black wool is not as commercially viable as white wool. Citizens who accept overbearing governments have been referred to by the Portmanteauneologism of sheeple. Somewhat differently, the adjective "sheepish" is also used to describe embarrassment.
In British heraldry, sheep appear in the form of rams, sheep proper and lambs. These are distinguished by the ram being depicted with horns and a tail, the sheep with neither and the lamb with its tail only. A further variant of the lamb, termed the Paschal lamb, is depicted as carrying a Christian cross and with a halo over its head. Rams' heads, portrayed without a neck and facing the viewer, are also found in British armories. The fleece, depicted as an entire sheepskin carried by a ring around its midsection, originally became known through its use in the arms of the Order of the Golden Fleece and was later adopted by towns and individuals with connections to the wool industry.
Religion and folklore
In antiquity, symbolism involving sheep cropped up in religions in the ancient Near East, the Mideast, and the Mediterranean area: Çatalhöyük, ancient Egyptian religion, the Cana'anite and Phoenician tradition, Judaism, Greek religion, and others. Religious symbolism and ritual involving sheep began with some of the first known faiths: Skulls of rams (along with bulls) occupied central placement in shrines at the Çatalhöyük settlement in 8, BCE. In Ancient Egyptian religion, the ram was the symbol of several gods: Khnum, Heryshaf and Amun (in his incarnation as a god of fertility). Other deities occasionally shown with ram features include the goddess Ishtar, the Phoenician god Baal-Hamon, and the Babylonian god Ea-Oannes. In Madagascar, sheep were not eaten as they were believed to be incarnations of the souls of ancestors.
There are many ancient Greek references to sheep: that of Chrysomallos, the golden-fleeced ram, continuing to be told through into the modern era. Astrologically, Aries, the ram, is the first sign of the classical Greek zodiac, and the sheep is the eighth of the twelve animals associated with the year cycle of in the Chinese zodiac, related to the Chinese calendar. In Mongolia, shagai are an ancient form of dice made from the cuboid bones of sheep that are often used for fortunetelling purposes.
Sheep play an important role in all the Abrahamic faiths; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, King David and the Islamic prophetMuhammad were all shepherds. According to the Biblical story of the Binding of Isaac, a ram is sacrificed as a substitute for Isaac after an angel stays Abraham's hand (in the Islamic tradition, Abraham was about to sacrifice Ishmael). Eid al-Adha is a major annual festival in Islam in which sheep (or other animals) are sacrificed in remembrance of this act. Sheep are occasionally sacrificed to commemorate important secular events in Islamic cultures. Greeks and Romans sacrificed sheep regularly in religious practice, and Judaism once sacrificed sheep as a Korban (sacrifice), such as the Passover lamb. Ovine symbols—such as the ceremonial blowing of a shofar—still find a presence in modern Judaic traditions.
Collectively, followers of Christianity are often referred to as a flock, with Christ as the Good Shepherd, and sheep are an element in the Christian iconography of the birth of Jesus. Some Christian saints are considered patrons of shepherds, and even of sheep themselves. Christ is also portrayed as the Sacrificial lamb of God (Agnus Dei) and Easter celebrations in Greece and Romania traditionally feature a meal of Paschal lamb. A church leader is often called the pastor, which is derived from the Latin word for shepherd. In many western Christian traditions bishops carry a staff, which also serves as a symbol of the episcopal office, known as a crosier, which is modeled on the shepherd's crook.
Sheep are key symbols in fables and nursery rhymes like The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, Little Bo Peep, Baa, Baa, Black Sheep, and Mary Had a Little Lamb; novels such as George Orwell's Animal Farm and Haruki Murakami's A Wild Sheep Chase; songs such as Bach'sSheep may safely graze (Schafe können sicher weiden) and Pink Floyd's "Sheep", and poems like William Blake's "The Lamb".
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- ^Meadow, Richard H. (). Harappa Excavations A Multidisciplinary Approach to Third Millennium Urbanism. Madison Wisconsin: PREHISTORY PRESS. pp.94 Moving east to the Greater Indus Valley, decreases in the size of cattle, goat, and sheep also appear to have taken place starting in the 6th or even 7th Millennium BC (Meadow b, ). Details of that phenomenon, which I have argued elsewhere was a local process at least for sheep and cattle (Meadow b, ).
- ^Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; etal. (). "Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations". Science. (): – BibcodeSciC. doi/science PMC PMID
- ^Weaver, p. 11
- ^Smith et al., p. 8
- ^Max Escalon de Fonton, L'Homme avant l'histoire, p. 16–17, in Histoire de la Provence, Editions Privat, Toulouse, See also F. Bourdier, Préhistoire de France (Paris, ) and G. Bailloud, Les civilisations Néolithiques de la France (Paris, ).
- ^Weaver, p. 13
- ^Pliny the Elder () . "Naturalis Historia". Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University. pp.Chapters 72– Retrieved
- ^ abcdefEnsminger
- ^Weaver, p. 12
- ^Budiansky, pp. 97–
- ^Budianksy, pp. –
- ^ ab"Natural Colored Sheep". Rare Breeds Watchlist. Rocky Mountain Natural Colored Sheep Breeders Association. January Retrieved
- ^ ab"An introduction to coloured sheep". British Coloured Sheep Breeders Association. Archived from the original on Retrieved
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxWeaver
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwSimmons & Ekarius
- ^Melinda J. Burrill (). "Sheep". World Book. Mackiev.
- ^Frandson, R. D. and T. L. Spurgeon. Anatomy and physiology of farm animals. 5th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
- ^"Dental Anatomy of Ruminants from Colorado State University". Vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved
- ^Schoenian, Susan. "Sheep Basics". Sheepinfo. Retrieved
- ^ abcdefgSmith et al.
- ^ abSmith et al., p. 5.
- ^Shulaw, William P. (). Sheep Care Guide. American Sheep Industry Association. Retrieved
- ^Terrill, C. E.; Hazel, L. N. (). "Heritability of neck folds and face covering in range Rambouillet lambs as evaluated by scoring". J. Anim. Sci. 5 (2): – doi/jasx. PMID
- ^ abcdefghiBrown, Dave; Sam Meadowcroft (). The Modern Shepherd. Ipswich, United Kingdom: Farming Press. ISBN.
- ^ abSmith et al., p. 4.
- ^"Sheep (Ovis aries)". Breeds of Livestock. Oklahoma State University Dept. of Animal Science. Retrieved
- ^Cathy M. Dwyer (31 July ). The Welfare of Sheep. シュプリンガー・ジャパン株式会社. pp.56–. ISBN. Retrieved 15 October
- ^Per Jensen (). The ethology of domestic animals: an introductory text. CABI. pp.–. ISBN. Retrieved 15 October
- ^Maijala, K. , Genetic aspects of domestication, common breeds and their origin. In: Piper, L. and A. Ruvinsky (eds.). The genetics of sheep. CABI
- ^Scherf, B. D. World watch list for domestic animal diversity. 3rd Edition. FAO, Rome
- ^ abFAO. State of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture
- ^D’Arcy, J.B., Sheep Management & Wool Technology, NSW University Press, , ISBN
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqWooster
- ^Pulina, Giuseppe; Roberta Bencini (). Dairy Sheep Nutrition. CABI Publishing. ISBN.
- ^ abcPulina et al. p. 2.
- ^Rare Breeds Survival Trust (UK) (January ). "Sheep". Rare Breeds Watchlist. Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved
- ^Rare Breeds Survival Trust (UK) (). "Watchlist". A numerical guide to the Watchlist categories. Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved
- ^"Conservation Priority List", livestockconservancy.org, The Livestock Conservancy, retrieved
- ^ abcPugh, pp.
- ^ abSimmons & Ekarius, p.
- ^Van Soest, P. J. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell Univ. Press. pp.
- ^Wright, A.-D. G.; etal. (). "Molecular diversity of rumen methanogens from sheep in Western Australia". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (3): – BibcodeApEnMW. doi/aem PMC PMID
Skull reference ram
The subject of a ram or ram’s head for adornment, amulets, and amuletic jewelry is age-old, and the animal is one of the earliest to appear in these forms. Rams’ heads are among the most numerous of pre-Roman amber subjects and range considerably in style. The earliest ones can be dated to the third quarter of the sixth century B.C., but the first documented examples date to the last decade of the sixth. There are a number from fifth-century contexts and a group from the fourth century. Some, such as AO
Cat. no. 39(cat. no. 39), are minor masterpieces of Archaic art, while others are vaguely blocked out and defined with schematic scratchings. The differences among the rams’ heads throughout the period of their production suggest that they were made by any number of carvers, some highly skilled, others not, for acquirers from all parts of the Italian peninsula and areas within close sailing distance. The findspots include central and south Italy, two sites in ancient Illyria, and Alalia (Corsica). Many others that can be dated by style to the sixth and fifth centuries have come to light without secure documentation. Of the examples in the Getty collection, three are dated here by style to the sixth century, and twelve examples to the fifth.
Amber rams’ heads are usually found in pairs or larger numbers, along with other amber objects—figured and plain pendants, beads, and fibulae. In the sixth century, rams’ heads were the most numerous of all figured subjects in amber. They were joined with korai; female head-pendants; birds; heads of lions, boars, gazelles, and horses; and floral and shell subjects. Ram subjects in amber are not documented in the company of human or humanoid male subjects—satyrs, Dionysos, Herakles, or any of the other unnamed bearded or unbearded males represented in amber. Rare, too, is the interment of ram subjects with demonic subjects. Two exceptions are the rams’ heads from Tomb at Braida di Vaglio, which also included a sphinx, and the rams’ heads in the Petit Palais, Paris, from the Sala Consilina burial, which also included a range of flying figures, perhaps harpies or sirens.
The parallels for the amber heads in other media have led to the conclusion that the earliest amber rams’ heads were made in the second half of the sixth century, in an ambient where Greek specialists (Laconians, Ionians, Islanders, and other Eastern Greeks) were working, but the locations are elusive. Comparanda for the sixth-century amber rams’ heads include the rams on the handles of Greek bronze vessels, especially Laconian ware, and on other kinds of Greek bronzes—statuettes, mirrors, and other utensils; the sheep subjects engraved on Ionian Greek gems; a singular silver ram pendant in New York; the pairs of rams on a silver East Greek oinochoe found in Lydia; and the rams’ heads struck on coinage from Cyzicus, Cyprus, Lesbos, Delphi, and Melos. Plastic vases in the form of recumbent rams and ram protomes, the small plastic ram protomes on Greek and Etruscan ceramics, and the drawings of rams on black- and red-figured vases of various fabrics also provide a mine of further comparanda.
Most of the amber rams’ heads appear to date to the fifth century. Parallels include gold works dated by specialists to the late sixth century, but which may be later. These include a Greek gold ram’s-head pendant from Eretria in Berlin, and a gold fibula with the tip in the form of a ram’s head from Ruvo in London. The amber rams’ heads dated to the second half of the fifth century have several good comparisons in precious metals, among them a gold necklace with nine rams’ heads excavated from a tomb of circa – at Roccanova and the spiral earrings ornamented with rams’ heads worn by the nymph Arethusa on Syracusan tetradrachms of B.C.
The best evidence for early-fourth-century amber rams’ heads comes from a sporadic find at Cumae and three graves from the Andriuolo necropolis at Paestum, the latter datable to circa – B.C. In each case, rams’ heads were all part of necklaces that also included female heads. Both types are schematic.
An important antecedent for the joining of rams’ heads and other figured elements in jewelry is the “Island Greek” or Lydian (perhaps) crescent-shaped gold pendant from Aydın (Tralles) of about B.C. In addition to rams’ heads, this pectoral pendant includes the figure of Potnia Theron with snakes, rosettes, and sun disks, and griffins’, lions’, and bulls’ heads. Potnia Theron is the divinity who oversees plant life, the creatures and demons of the earth, the chthonic realm, and the sky. The Aydın pendant thus might be read as the ontological statement of a divinity of great fecundity and protectiveness. Despite the difference in scale, the role of the ram here is similar to that of the ram protomes of the large stone perirrhanterion, the ritual purification basin, from the Isthmian sanctuary of Poseidon: the bowl is held up by women who stand on lions, holding them by leash and tail, interspersed with large rams’ heads. A ritual object such as the seventh-century terracotta lamp from a Gela sanctuary (the rams alternate with female protomes) may be an excerpt of such an ontological declaration.
Rams’ heads are also a popular subject of “Phoenician” glass pendants and the subject of one uncommon type of Egyptian scaraboid, a blue frit amulet of the earlier sixth century made at Naucratis. The blue frit scaraboids are unusual in their treatment as seals with representational motifs or inscriptions on the flat sides. Their distribution is significant: Greece, the Black Sea, Magna Graecia (Taranto), and one example from Cerveteri. Related Egyptian amulet types, representing the king of the gods, Amun Ra, are the flat-backed amulets of a ram’s head with a disk and uraeus, or uraeus alone, in hollow gold and lapis lazuli as well as glazed-composition and frit, a feature of burials from the Third Intermediate period onward. Such is the role of the rams’ heads flanking the necks on the pair of glazed-composition flasks found in the “Isis Tomb” at the Polledrara cemetery at Vulci (British Museum GR ): the pair of rams’ heads invoke Amun, and the hieroglyphic inscription expresses greetings for the New Year, a potentially dangerous time of transition, just as was death.
Archaic representations of ram’s-head pendants in use include sculpted and painted examples, worn by both females and males, both deities and mortals. Some examples are telling: the terracotta statuette of an enthroned chthonic(?) female deity from Agrigento wears three superimposed pectoral strings, with bull, ram, and satyr heads. The subject of a terracotta urn lid (from the Monte Abatone necropolis, Cerveteri) is a reclining woman who wears a necklace with seven pendants, two of them rams’ heads. The male banqueter painted in the pediment of the main wall of the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing at Tarquinia wears three ram pendants on a carrier. In addition, several necklaces (one with three lions’ heads) hang from branches in the grove of the first chamber of the same tomb. The rams’ heads (amber) worn by the Monte Abatone figure are painted reddish in color, the same color of the two tiny beads at the top of the necklace, in contrast with the yellow-orange (perhaps gold) central pendants. The three rams’ heads worn by the male banqueter in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing are the same reddish color as his skin and contrast in color with the yellow- and white-limned vessels (perhaps of shiny bronze or silver) held by the banquet’s participants. The ram’s-head necklace in the first chamber is also painted a reddish color, in contrast with the yellow-orange palmette and lion pendants (also gold, perhaps) in the murals of the first chamber.
Erika Simon interpreted the trees of the first chamber of the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing as laurels and a sacred grove of Apollo as further evidence supporting her larger argument concerning the importance of Apollo in the funerary art and customs of Etruria (in contrast to his Greek nature). If the grove is indeed Apollo’s and the animal-head necklaces hanging from the trees are of amber, this could be taken as further evidence of the connections between amber, Apollo, and life in the tomb as well as the funereal realm. Although the rams’ heads depicted in southern Etruria predate by several decades the Delphic coin types with confronted pairs of mounted rams’ heads (perhaps pendants rather than rhyta), the coins may substantiate the Apollonian connection. Alternatively, it is possible that the tomb is Dionysian, as Sybille Haynes argues. Stephan Steingräber points out its Dionysian aspects.
The ram has always enjoyed favor as a potent symbol because of the animal’s legendary strength and virility (and hence its creative powers), and its characteristics as a leader and protector of his flock. In the ancient Near East, and from earliest times throughout the Mediterranean, the ram was associated with powerful divinities and heroic figures, wealth and the elite, and sacrifice. In South Italy, ivory figurines of recumbent animals, including the ram (decorations of fibulae, for the most part), were excavated at Motte delle Timpone (Francavilla Marittima). At Argos and Perachora in Greece, ivory ram figurines have appeared in sanctuaries devoted to Hera, and at Ephesus, in that of Artemis. The single greatest number of ivory rams has come from the sanctuary of Ortheia (Artemis Orthia) at Sparta. In each case, the ram is linked with a powerful female divinity and a potent and high-value material. The series of early-sixth-century bronze Laconian hydriai (whose shape might be directly connected with women) with vertical handles animated by female heads, recumbent rams, and lion could be other instances of this affiliation. The fourth-century necklaces with rams’ and women’s heads from Paestum, the last gasp of pre-Roman amber carving, may reflect the same pairing.
The traditional importance of the ram’s head as a subject in the ancient Near East is exemplified by two lapis lazuli pendants dating to the third millennium, possibly from Iran, and by a calcite Jemdet-Nasr-period amulet-seal of circa B.C. In Egypt, the ram was connected to several key deities. The ram with downturned horns was a symbol of the god Amun, and when he wore the solar disk between his horns or incorporated other solar iconography, the ram’s head was one of two guises of Amun Ra (the other was a goose). A ram’s head in amber, the subject enhanced and focused by the material from which the amulet was made, would put its wearer under the protection of the deity represented and would by assimilation offer the wearer access to its particular powers.
The ram, the most highly valued and sexually potent of domestic animals, was from earliest times the most prestigious sacrificial victim. Greek drinking vessels (rhyta) in the form of rams’ heads are the most numerous by far and had an ancient ancestry. In Greece, the ram’s-head rhyton, as Hans Hoffman first argued, is associated with tragic heroes (he who must die, i.e., be sacrificed himself).
A ram’s head might have been worn to show the patronage of, or devotion to, a deity. For a Greek or an Etruscan, a ram’s-head pendant may have been an exotic, “Oriental” magical amulet, a talisman of protection, one that symbolized the power or knowledge of Egypt, the Punic world, or the Near East.
In the Greek-speaking world, the most famous stories of the ram’s apotropaic powers concern acts by Hermes, the Olympian responsible for the increase and protection of flocks. At Tanagra, Hermes averted a pestilence from the city by carrying a ram around its walls. A series of ram-bearer statuettes found at Medma (Calabria) attest to the widespread influence of the cult of Hermes in the West. It was Hermes, too, who sent the golden ram that flew Phrixos to safety in Colchis. The magic of the volant ram did not cease at its sacrifice: the Golden Fleece displayed in the grove of Ares was believed to be magical. Throughout Greek culture, the ram figures prominently as a metaphor of strength and courage (thus the association with Ares). Accordingly, Homeric heroes are likened to thick-fleeced lambs (Iliad ). In Attic vase painting, rams are sometimes represented in an explicitly sacrificial context. More commonly, the context is heroic, with the ram’s sacrificial role implicit only. Such is the case in the story of Phrixos, or of Odysseus. Both the ram that carried Odysseus from the Cyclops’s cave (Odysseyff.) and Phrixos’s mount are sacrificed as soon as they have finished their tasks. Their sacrifice is part of the story. The emblematic power of the Golden Fleece recalls the story of Atreus and Thyestes: the kingdom belonged to him who owned the golden lamb.
Almost all of the small-scale individual rams’ heads have been found in graves or, in the case of their representation in art, in funerary settings. This is critical to a better understanding of the subject in adornment. Although ram’s-head adornments might be hung from trees in a painting, and worn by both male and female reclining figures, the amber heads from documented contexts have come exclusively from female tombs. It is likely that in each burial, the rams’ heads functioned as ornament and amulet, the subject and material combining to create an elite object, a potent ornament, one with a battery of allusions—religious, divine, heroic, mythic, magical. It may also have worked in aggressive magic or medicine. Many Late Antique gems are engraved with a ram-headed god, one wearing the symbol of the sun (based on Amun Ra), and are specifically connected with the uterus. Such amulets were thought to check any morbid condition, to prevent conception, or to favor and facilitate parturition.
The solar aspects of amber may well have underscored the connection of the pendant subjects with regeneration, with the Egyptian ba, with solar divinities, with heroes (Odysseus, Phrixos, or Jason), or with a magical figure such as Medea. The Aydın (Tralles) pendant suggests the place of the ram in the universe of a powerful female nature divinity. Of the Olympian gods, if Apollo (the solar divinity) were brought to mind (and to work) by the ram’s head, then perhaps there was an association with his son Phaethon and the Heliades—whose shining tears shed in mourning for their brother Phaethon were hardened by the sun and turned into amber. If Hermes was evoked, it might allude to not only his legendary magical act at Tanagra, but also his role—and the ram’s—as psychopompos. As this survey reflects, the subject of ram imagery in ancient art deserves continued study.
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It also makes a great present for medical professionals and students of medicine and allied health professions. Medical Simulation, Medical Education, Medical Simulators, Human anatomy models and charts, Physics equipment and Biology supplies, Science Education, Physiotherapy and Acupuncture supplies. Yellow quad bike. Teeth and jaws are on a separate layer. OBJs for the normal skull, and exploded skull. The module “Skull&Intracranial Atlas” is a full 3D and Augmented Reality atlas for studying neuroanatomy on mobile devices. All made from 3d scans, choose from a variety of different skulls, goat skulls, human skulls, alien skulls, gorilla skulls, horse skulls and more! Our skull 3d models are all created from 3d scans that have been created on the gargantuan ten24 3d scan rig. 3D Models; Skull n Spine; Share. skull, human, people, anatomy, skeleton. Info: The Billelis Skull Model Pack is a collection of custom sculpted human skulls for use in personal or commercial work. Thanks also for putting it on Wikimedia Commons as well, since on the computer I currently use DropBox simply doesn't work. Royalty free Skull rock Model 3D by icekazim. Some anatomical liberties were taken …. The CAD files and renderings posted to this website are created, uploaded and managed by third-party community members. The headgear comes from Hafnerbach (Traisen Valley, Lower Austria) and was donated to the NHM. Thank you for making it freely available. Previous Next. Available for purchase and download for study and for print in a couple of configurations. Methods: A 3D-printed model was created using the patient's cranial computed tomography and computed tomography angiography radiological imaging. They applied three main simulations: (1) open sutures, which. Browse and download from hundreds of user submitted blender3d blends. Add to Favorites. In this tutorial you will learn how to create a high res Skull model, generate a normal map from that model and learn how to apply this to its low poly version. Add to Collection. Ornamented Skull 3D printing model uploaded by zbrushingmx. Oct 02, · Human skull, highly accurate. Our casts are used in the study of forensics, pathology, anthropology, archaeology, zoology, primatology, advanced anatomy, and much more. Skull 3D models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR options. skull necklaces. Previous Next. NOTE: DIGITAL DOWNLOAD, NOT A PHYSICAL ITEM. 3d-model-male-skull. Join the GrabCAD Community today to gain access and download! skull - Recent models | 3D CAD Model Collection | GrabCAD Community Library. Print takes roughly 8 hours at µm layer height with 2 materials (Ext. For CNC Routers. / Download and print the entire T-Rex Skeleton. It is made out of a high quality resin to best resemble human bone. Create a Plane. Model available for download in # format Visit CGTrader and browse more than 1 million 3D models, including 3D print and real-time …. Every Day new 3D Models from all over the World. Chimpanzee skull 3d model from Skull, Anatomy, glTF, Paleontology, and University of Dundee Museum Collection tag. Jackal Skull mask 3D model files for personal 3D printing. This content and associated text is in no way sponsored by or affiliated with any company, organization, or real-world good that it may purport to portray. Click to find the best Results for dinosaur skull Models for your 3D …. Essential Anatomy 3 is designed to be a seamless and fluid 3D experience and excels where other apps fail to deliver. 3D Printed Skull: 15 Skulls & Skull-Themed Models. Scanned to a very high standarded making use of over x 18 megapixel images we have managed to capture every detail. 3D scan of a skull from the Franzhausen Cemetery in Lower Austria, from the Early Bronze Age, ca. PRODUCT OVERVIEWThe Billelis Skull Model Pack is a collection of 5 custom 3D sculpted human skulls for use in personal or commercial work. Your Support = 1. Just log in or sign up to start taking advantage of all the 3D models we have to offer. This handsome dinosaur skull model is highly detailed from polyresin and is mounted on a solid wood base. Marsh and Michael W. We also carry entomology, cryptology, anthropology and forensic skulls. Understand human movement like never before, as you move skeletal joints in 3D. results. One Response to "Skull". This bone is the center of attention in endonasal skull base surgery. Concept Skull made as a study, just the basic forms and proportions it can be used to learn how to make skulls or just to print it as decoration :) 3D model size: X Item: [A20] This 3 part medical quality human skull replica is a first choice for basic anatomical studies of the skull. Our 3D CAD model of a skull is one of our most popular sellers. Register, Login and submit your blender models now, it only takes a few minutes and helps fellow 3D artists around. Some modifications were necessary to introduce this method into the clinical routine planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery. Black vulture skull (model can be downloaded from digimorph. Available formats: c4d, max, obj, fbx, ma, blend, 3ds, 3dm, stl - 3DExport. /s The application allows to see the skull from different angles and to …. 3d model skull ATTENTION! This item is a DIGITAL 3D model (*STL file format) for ARTCAM, ASPIRE, CUT3D software applications. User Renders. 3D scan of a skull from the Franzhausen Cemetery in Lower Austria, from the Early Bronze Age, ca. The models were used as part of a training workshop for ENT surgeons with varying degrees of experience in endoscopic base of skull surgery, from trainees to experienced consultants. KineBody Movable 3D Human Model. 5 out of 5 stars. skull 3d model stuff come in life-size or enlarged models in colored varieties to enable proper visualization of internal organs. Credits: Dr. The model comes in. Flinks Skull & Bones contains: 7 different hill objects (bone, ground and skull as separate objects) 5 small round and square flat objects (ground, bones and skull as separate objects) 8 different tile objects (ground, bone and skull as separate objects) The tiles match the tiles of Instant Meadow 3 and Instant Forest and can be combined with these tiles. thedroppingform. Works with Unity 3D, Unreal Engine, Sketchup, 3DS Max, Maya, Cinema 4D and Blender. In the CT data, the upper teeth and lower teeth were joined as one mesh, therefore I completely remodelled some of the teeth so that the mandible could be detached from the cranium and can be 3D printed separately. 3D Printed Skull: 15 Skulls & Skull-Themed Models. The process is the same for modeling a head. Royalty free Skull cave Model 3D by icekazim. Skull model with inhomogeneous resistivity distribution. Our apologies for any inconvenience this may cause. 4D Master Human Anatomy Exploded Skull Model 3D Puzzle, One Color. Hope you like. Click to find the best Results for skull Models for your 3D Printer. skull, human, people, anatomy, skeleton. Our 3D CAD model of a skull is one of our most popular sellers. The Zygote 3D skull model is part of a larger collection of 3D human anatomy. Like 0 Collect 0 Views Prints (0) Upload a Print No Prints Yet. Realistic Human Skull. The lightweight, handheld Artec Space Spider scanned more than fragments of this 2-million-year-old hominid skull. KineMan focuses on realistic human skeletal joint motions, by adding scientifically-derived joint kinematics (axes & motion ranges) to 3D bone geometry. SKELETON Anatomy 3D Atlas. Unique skull helmets for your characters. Skull 3D models. Free Model: Skull. For the first time organizations can quickly make their health, medical and life science education more immersive using BioDigital's software. Thanks again for checking out our prints! Visit 3DKitbash. Welcome to Real 3D Anatomy, a collaboration between Creative Dimension Software Ltd and the Centre for Comparative and Clinical Anatomy at the University of Bristol. From Goblins to Humpback Whales, there will be something for everyone. Human skull for study and reference. When it comes to digitizing such fragile historical artifacts as bones, skeletons, and skulls of rare creatures, be it a dinosaur, a mammoth, or ancient human remains, 3D data quality is key. We will be using the free, open-source program 3D Slicer to convert a CT scan of a skull into an STL file ready for 3D model printing. It works perfectly with our entire 3D CAD Skeleton and is the most medically accurate CAD skull available. Richard Gain is a doctor, clinical terminologist, puzzle designer. This tutorial will teach you the basics of Spline Cage modeling of a human skull using background pictures in 3ds Max. Interactive 3D models of human anatomy, physiology, disease and treatments can be tailored for specific learning, then embedded directly within a curriculum or any type education material. Model available for download in # format Visit CGTrader and browse more than 1 million 3D models, including 3D print and real-time assets 3D model skull ZTL cranium 3d anatomy bone character, available in OBJ, ZTL, ready for 3D animation and other 3D projects. io is a full-featured cloud-based 3D modeling, animation and rendering software tool that runs in your web browser. Model available for download in # format Visit CGTrader and browse more than 1 million 3D models, including 3D print and real-time assets. Click to find the best Results for skull mold Models for your 3D Printer. 1 mm Publication date: /12/22 at This wonderful Abelisaurid, Majungasaurus crenatissimus Skull. 2) files from Blender, one with scene illuminated as in render and another with two models inside, High Poly Decimate and Low Poly. Is a 2 part model, Skull + Jaw. This file is designed for Cnc Machines, and can be edited with all 3D Softwares like, Artcam, Aspire, Vcarve, Cut3D, etc and 3D modeling Softwares like Blender, Zbrush, Maya,. Modern 3D dissemination methods like this 3D Alligator hold great potential for morphologists to share anatomical information to scientists. ← Back to model page. Human Skeleton. 3d model skull ATTENTION! This item is a DIGITAL 3D model (*STL file format) for ARTCAM, ASPIRE, CUT3D software applications. The printed model can describe the correct structure and details of the skull clearly, which can be considered as a good alternative to the cadaveric skull. Unlike the beginning of the history of 3D modeling, when it was reserved only for the industry of very expensive products, nowadays 3D models and 3D modeling can be found in the smallest workshops, and even with DIY enthusiasts. Royalty free Skull rock Model 3D by icekazim. A somewhat realistic human skull I made; the underside isn't that precise :P I modeled it using various pictures found on the Internet as reference. I am very interested in finding medical applications for 3d printing, and working with others interested in this new field. 3D Textures. Marsh and Michael W. Richard Gain is a doctor, clinical terminologist, puzzle designer. 99 from our online store Features As we mentioned above Skull Sketcher 2 has all the features of a full functional Anatomy Pack, It contains 2 Skulls both male and Female scanned using 's of images to create stunning high-resolution 3d replicas. 3d Skull free download - 3D World Map, Ulead Cool 3D, MilkShape 3D, and many more programs. Get it as soon as Wed, Aug Royalty free Skull cave Model 3D by icekazim. This tutorial include PROJECT FILE AFTER EFFECTS PROJECT FILEThis tutorial include PROJECT FILE AFTER EFFECTS PROJECT FILEhttp://www. 00 USD • 50% Off. Ends: Aug Only 2d 10h 12m left! Price: 5. Download and print the entire T-Rex Skeleton. A watertight 3D-model of a plastic cube produced by ProtoLabs. This is a model of the Human (Homo sapiens) skull. Billelis 3D Skull Model Pack Vol 1. Posted on August 3, Scale up or down as needed, current size is scale human skull. Find professional Skull 3D Models for any 3D design projects like virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), games, 3D visualization or animation. Some anatomical liberties were taken for printability and simplification. Skull Papercraft Polar Bear Template Low Poly 3d Papercraft Templates Skull Papercraft Cubone Pepakura Skull and Bone Cosplay Papercraft and Craft Skull Papercraft Sword Shield Diy Papercraft Model Ð Ñ Ð¼Ð°Ð¶Ð½Ñ Ðµ Ð¸Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ Ð¸Ñ. 5K texture maps, 5K color map and 5K bump map. The skulls are different colors because as they fossilized they absorbed minerals from the surrounding soil, and different minerals cause different. I am very keen to get in to bio fabrication. Click to find the best Results for snake skull Models for your 3D Printer. Collection: Chrome Experiments. Auto-BM (skull flaps) is readily accessible for specific patients after craniectomy, providing sufficient autogenous materials for MLC-3DP. 3d Origami Low Poly Model DIY. Warhammer 40K - Skull Set 3D print model. Designed for resin 3d printing or wax 3d printing for jewelry casting. The green colour of the skull indicates the bronze objects that were buried with the woman in the area around the head. The vector file Laser Cut Acrylic 3D Skull Model CDR File is a Coreldraw cdr (. Head and neck muscles Extremity Lower (Leg) Muscles Extremity, Upper (Arm) Muscles. One need only compare the Zygote 3D Skull Model to other models on the market to. SKELETON Anatomy 3D Atlas. Here you can buy or download free Skull 3D models. Final model size: 17 x 26 x 15 cm (6. STL→ Types of rings: Ring 1: Inner diametr 17mmRing 2: Inner diametr 18mmRing 3: Inner diametr 19mmRing 4: Inner diametr 20mm Ring 5: Inner diametr 21mm→ Mesh: k triangles. This page presents interactive 3D visualizations of human anatomical structure. Hominid skull. Previous Next. 0 (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) and converted into stereolithography (STL) files. 3D scan of a skull from the Franzhausen Cemetery in Lower Austria, from the Early Bronze Age, ca. 1 mm Publication date: /12/22 at anatatomyka. Yellow quad bike. JS editor for creating and tweaking. 3D scan of a skull from the Franzhausen Cemetery in Lower Austria, from the Early Bronze Age, ca. Thanks again for checking out our prints! Visit 3DKitbash. Human Skull 3D Model. NOTE: DIGITAL DOWNLOAD, NOT A PHYSICAL ITEM. Works with Unity 3D, Unreal Engine, Sketchup, 3DS Max, Maya, Cinema 4D and Blender. Get 3D model of Large Skull Ring printed near you starting from We also have a range of more advanced head and skull models including skulls with muscles, Beauchene skulls, and disarticulated skulls by Somso Modelle, 3B Scientific and ESP Models. In his post, you'll learn how to design and print puzzles. When dragging, the cursor input –to- joint response. The included instruction pa…. The GrabCAD Library offers millions of free CAD designs, CAD files, and 3D models. 5K texture maps, 5K color map and 5K bump map. This file is designed for Cnc Machines, and can be edited with all 3D Softwares like, Artcam, Aspire, Vcarve, Cut3D, etc and 3D modeling Softwares like Blender, Zbrush, Maya,. 2 versions for 3ds Max included : V-Ray and standard materials. Human skull, highly accurate. This product is designed for CNC machining. "snake skull" 3D Models. Just log in or sign up to start taking advantage of all the 3D models we have to offer. For the first time organizations can quickly make their health, medical and life science education more immersive using BioDigital's software. The skulls are different colors because as they fossilized they absorbed minerals from the surrounding soil, and different minerals cause different. They applied three main simulations: (1) open sutures, which. ratings. Fin Whale Skull 3D Model. Our 3D CAD model of a skull is one of our most popular sellers. The skull also includes all major foramina, an accurate interior to the cranium, and each sinus cavity. Available formats: c4d, max, obj, fbx, ma, blend, 3ds, 3dm, stl - 3DExport. The researchers developed a model based on the 3D reconstruction of pre-operative computer tomography images of a 3 months old patient with sagittal synostosis, and on the planned surgical procedure. Read on Mobile Enter Reading Mode. The Visible Interactive Human at Ohio University. Modeled in Zbrush. Load in 3D viewer Uploaded by Anonymous. This 3D model of the skull of the Museum's iconic Diplodocus carnegii cast was produced by our Imaging and Analysis Centre. 0 (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) and converted into stereolithography (STL) files. The CAD files and renderings posted to this website are created, uploaded and managed by third-party community members. Free 3D Skull models available for download. is the premier manufacturer of osteological replica models. This web store and its contents are completely unofficial, and its contents are in no way endorsed, or affiliated with Disney or Lucasarts. Jose Gurrola II. 5K texture maps, 5K color map and 5K bump map. Available in many file formats including MAX, OBJ, FBX, 3DS, STL, C4D, BLEND, MA, MB. The grave of a rich woman was equipped with numerous bronze grave goods. With this purchase, you receive the. This tutorial will teach you the basics of Spline Cage modeling of a human skull using background pictures in 3ds Max. This is a fantastic model, useful for a number of artistic purposes as well as serious medical illustration. We are working to solve this problem as quickly as possible. Available formats: c4d, max, obj, fbx, ma, blend, 3ds, 3dm, stl - 3DExport. We are giving away a free high resolution 3D Rams skull perfect for making demons, monsters or whatever you see fit to use it for. Search for: Search. -link removed- - Skull For Reference - 3D model by HEC (@hec) [c]. Whether as a decor item or just for fun, 3D printed skulls can be a nice test print for your machine. Full human skull, sliced for 3D printing. Using Iodine-contrast enhanced microCT imaging, a segmented model of jaw muscles, trigeminal nerve, brain and skull are presented as a cross-sectional atlas and 3D, interactive pdf of the rendered model. BONEHEADS 3D print support-free. PRODUCT OVERVIEW. Skull 3D models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR options. 1) file with the sculpture made in Zbrush - HIGH POLY. We are giving away a free high resolution 3D Rams skull perfect for making demons, monsters or whatever you see fit to use it for. The high poly version includes all details without using displacement/ normal maps. Every Day new 3D Models from all over the World. 3D scan of a skull from the Franzhausen Cemetery in Lower Austria, from the Early Bronze Age, ca. Model available for download in # format Visit CGTrader and browse more than 1 million 3D models, including 3D print and real-time assets 3D model skull ZTL cranium 3d anatomy bone character, available in OBJ, ZTL, ready for 3D animation and other 3D projects. We will also use the freeware software programs Blender and Meshmixer to perform some final cleanup of the STL files before sending them to the printer. It has a. Blue Hydrangea. All these STL files are 3D printable, so just download them, heat up your 3D …. Billelis 3D Skull Model. The scanning process enabled us to generate 3D models of each object that you can view, rotate, and interact with online. 3d model of a smoking pipe with a skull. The green colour of the skull indicates the bronze objects that were buried with the woman in the area around the head. Hominid skull. National Institutes of Health. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Tyrannosaurus rex, 3D 1/2 Skull Plaque Model This item is a life-size, 3D, wall hangable plaque of the left side of a Tyrannosaurus rex skull. Thanks also for putting it on Wikimedia Commons as well, since on the computer I currently use DropBox simply doesn't work. A rehearsal in an operating room (OR) prior to the actual procedure date was used for surgical planning of SEEG electrodes, education of the residents and fellows as well as training of the support staff. Free Model: Skull. Draw a Spline using the Line tool. The Artist. 73 MB] PLY [ 0 in the Zygote library and with all other 5. Well, the online 3D printable file sharing platform Cults has compiled its "Top 10 of 3D Printed Skulls" list to make your search for the perfect 3D printable skull design easier and more fun. Available for purchase and download for study and for print in a couple of configurations. Unlike the beginning of the history of 3D modeling, when it was reserved only for the industry of very expensive products, nowadays 3D models and 3D modeling can be found in the smallest workshops, and even with DIY enthusiasts. User Renders. The Zygote 3D skull model is part of a larger collection of 3D human anatomy. Download Free 3D Model. 3D anatomy models from the most trusted name in the industry. Gorilla Grodd. Skull Organizer 3D printing model uploaded by SISCO. 3D Articulating Human Skull Model. It took me a couple tries with slicing to find a way to get it to print with a makerbot, but I think I got it working. Whether as a decor item or just for fun, 3D printed skulls can be a nice test print for your machine. A 3D model tells more than a thousand pictures. Ready for 3D printing. You can see the real thing when Dippy is on tour around the UK. JS formats for use in Unity 3D, Blender, Sketchup, Cinema 4D, Unreal, 3DS Max and Maya. Skull with a Brain. KineBody Movable 3D Human Model. Ornamented Skull 3D printing model uploaded by zbrushingmx. PRODUCT OVERVIEW. It was then cleaned, adapted and polypainted in ZBrush. The grave of a rich woman was equipped with numerous bronze grave goods. This collection of viewable hominin fossil 3D models was produced by the Smithsonian's Human Origins Program by 3D scanning casts and other replicas which are now on display in the Hall of Human Origins at the National Museum of Natural History. io you can make complex 3D models, create beautiful photorealistic renderings, and share them without installing any software programs. A unique scientific resource, most of the material is free. It is novel in at least two respects: Unlike books or traditional multimedia programs, it allows interactive exploration of a detailed three-dimensional anatomical model. High poly count. Largest 3D Modeling asset Library. Jul 15, - • This listing is for a digital instant download PDF file • DIY template for creating a detailed 3D model of a human skull to use as a decoration. Skull Cove elements are specifically designed to be low resource, and each of the models is low resolution. The green colour of the skull indicates the bronze objects that were buried with the woman in the area around the head. 3D model description. Then apply a Surface modifier to add skin to. 3D Models Bones. We are giving away a free high resolution 3D Rams skull perfect for making demons, monsters or whatever you see fit to use it for. After you click on the skull, you can move the entire neck, in 3 DOF. Concept Skull made as a study, just the basic forms and proportions it can be used to learn how to make skulls or just to print it as decoration :) 3D model size: X From Goblins to Humpback Whales, there will be something for everyone. Final model size: 17 x 26 x 15 cm (6. Skull and Head Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial Spine and Pelvis Extremity Upper (Arm) Extremity Lower (Leg) Thorax and Ribs Whole body Skeletal tumors, fractures and bony pathology Muscles. Item is produced in three pieces, the upper skull, lower skull and the mandible. FREE Shipping by Amazon. -link removed- - Skull For Reference - 3D model by HEC (@hec) [c]. The muscle origins (red) and insertions (blue) are shown in color on the left side of the skull. 3D Printed Skull: 15 Skulls & Skull-Themed Models. io is a full-featured cloud-based 3D modeling, animation and rendering software tool that runs in your web browser. The manipulation procedure presented in this study is an easily available and cost-effective way to obtain a printed skull model from the original CT data, which has a considerable economic. The lightweight, handheld Artec Space Spider scanned more than fragments of this 2-million-year-old hominid skull. You will receive model in. Quality 3D & Stunning Graphics. With this purchase, you receive the. Make rough front and side outlines, and start building the Spline Cage using the Refine Connect tool. The researchers developed a model based on the 3D reconstruction of pre-operative computer tomography images of a 3 months old patient with sagittal synostosis, and on the planned surgical procedure. It has a. The 3D Skull and Teeth cutaway model is one of the derivatives of the carefully digitized cast of a real skeleton and subsequent modeling of each structure. Surrounded by darkness, the looming 20 foot skull is so close I can touch it. Select characters of all shapes and sizes, plus hairstyles, outfits, expressions, poses, props. Download Free 3D Model. These 3D printed models are rapidly made (8 hours of unsupervised printing for the rat model and 2 hours for the mouse model) and low-cost (the raw materials cost 21 and 5 CHF, respectively). Built with: 3D, WebGL. More by Rootin. You will receive separate. 3D models for Autodesk 3ds Max, Maya, Lightwave, C4D, Softimage and other 3d formats. A unique scientific resource, most of the material is free. Faceless Skull Ring 2 3D print model Designed by stavros togias. Skull Piles by MortemVetus () Skull Piles. No results. Originally modeled for M4 and V4, but with simple scaling and fit to female morph, you can fit helmet to any character. Additionally, 3-D charts demonstrating exact details of body parts are also available. Methods: A 3D-printed model was created using the patient's cranial computed tomography and computed tomography angiography radiological imaging. It is novel in at least two respects: Unlike books or traditional multimedia programs, it allows interactive exploration of a detailed three-dimensional anatomical model. Thanks also for putting it on Wikimedia Commons as well, since on the computer I currently use DropBox simply doesn't work. This tutorial will teach you the basics of Spline Cage modeling of a human skull using background pictures in 3ds Max. You may have noticed a common theme amongst models and scenery pieces from the …. This 3D Articulating Human Skull Model works perfectly with all other 3D Human Skeleton models v. / Free Model: Skull. Jaw locks into place with pre-made connectors. This is a fantastic model, useful for a number of artistic purposes as well as serious medical illustration. Model is ready for render. Available downloads. Well, the online 3D printable file sharing platform Cults has compiled its "Top 10 of 3D Printed Skulls" list to make your search for the perfect 3D printable skull design easier and more fun. 3D models of all specimens in.